LCT13: Personality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in LCT13: Personality Deck (63):
1

Personality

distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes a person throughout life

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Trait

a characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling

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Psychodynamic Theory

assumed that unconscious forces, such as wishes and motives, influence behavior

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Psychologist associated with the psychodynamic theory/approach

Sigmund Freud

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Levels of Consciousness

- conscious
- preconscious
- unconscious

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Conscious

aware of the thoughts

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Preconscious

thoughts could be brought to awareness - unthreatening

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Unconscious

not easily retrieved - thoughts and feelings are threatening

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Unconscious content

wishes, desires, motives associated with conflict, anxiety, or pain

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"Freudian Slips"

accidntally revealing a hidden thought or motive through a slip of the tongue --> unconscious content rarely stay buried

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Psychosexual Stages

stages of personality development that are defined by the part of the body that is most sensitive (or an issue) at the time

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Erogenous zone

body part that satisfies urges (usually erotic)

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Fixation

a "stopping-point" in psychosexual development that can cause re-organization of the personality before moving on to the next stage (either due to too much or too little gratification of needs during the stage)

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Five Psychosexual Stage

1) Oral
2) Anal
3) Phallic
4) Latency
5) Genital

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Oral Stage

birth to 18 months
- babies mouth is where pleasure is derived
- nursing, exploring

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Anal Stage

2-3 years old
- toilet training - learning to hold and release bowls - the focus of this stage
- Self-control

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Phallic Stage

4-6 years old
- genitals become focus of interest and pleasure
- noticing sex of parents; learning roles
- new interpretation: "how do I fit in to this group?"

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Latency Stage

7-12 years old
- sexual impulses dormant
- focus on friends and schoolwork
(the calm between the storms)

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Genital Stage

puberty to adult
- adult sexual urges appear
- coping with conflict between biological drives and social prohibitions

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3 Fixations

- Oral Fixation
- Anal Fixation
- Phallic Fixation

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Oral Fixation

problems feeding or weaning can cause later need for oral gratification (eating, drinking, smoking OR acting needy, dependent, demanding, passive)

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Anal Fixation

problems with toilet training or learning self-control (parent too harsh or rigid) can lead to becoming anal-retentive or anal-expulsive

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Anal-Retentive

tight, stubborn, over controlled

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Anal-Expulsive

rebellious, messy, disorganized

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Phallic Fixation

prohibiting genital exploration can lead to excessive masculinity or femininity

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Oedipus Complex

tendency to become attracted to opposite-sex parent and hostile toward same-sex parent

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What stages don't have fixations?

Latency stage and Genital stage

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Structural Model of Personality

three interacting parts of the human personality, in conflict with each other
- Id
- Ego
- Superego

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Id

a primitive and unconscious part of personality that contains basic drives and instincts - operates according to the Pleasure Principle ("I want it, and I want it NOW")

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Superego

internalized rules of society and parents; moral ideas and conscience ("you should be ashamed of yourself")

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Ego

the part of the personality that tries to satisfy the wishes of the Id while being responsive to the rules of the Superego (mediates between the two)

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Reality Principle

rational thinking and problem solving are used to satisfy needs and wants appropriately

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Defense Mechanisms

unconscious mental strategies the mind uses to protect itself from distress, conflict, and desires

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Denial

refusing to acknowledge source of anxiety

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Repression

excluding source of anxiety from awareness

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Projection

attributing unacceptable qualities of the self to someone else

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Reaction Formation

warding off an uncomfortable thought by overemphasizing its opposite (homophobia)

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Rationalization

concocting a seemingly logical reason or excuse for behavior that might otherwise be shameful

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Displacement

when people direct their emotions (especially anger) toward things, animals, or other people who are not the real object of their feelings

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Sublimation

channeling socially unacceptable impulses into constructive, even admirable, behavior

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Humanistic approach for personality

emphasizes personal experience and belief systems

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Self-Actualization (psychologist)

people seek to fulfill their potential for personal growth through greater self-understanding (Abraham Maslow)

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Person-Centered Approach (psychologist)

focused on people's personal understandings (Carl Rogers)

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Unconditional Positive Regard

acceptance and love from others is unqualified (love regardless of behavior

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What part of the structural model of personality operates on the reality principle?

Ego

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Personal constructs (psychologist)

personal theories of how the world works - develop through our experiences and represent our interpretations and explanations for events in our social worlds (George Kelly)

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Expectancy-Value Approach (psychologist)

the idea that behavior is a function of two things: our expectations for reinforcement and the values we ascribe to particular reinforcers (Julian Rotter's)

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Internal/External Locus of Control (psychologist)

Internal - believe they bring about their own rewards
External - believe rewards result from forces beyond their control (Julian Rotter's)

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Cognitive-Social Theories of Personality

emphasize how personal beliefs, expectancies, and interpretations of social situations shape behavior and personality

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Cognitive-Affective personality system (psychologist)

(CAPS) our personalities often fail to predict our behavior across different circumstances (Walter Mischel)

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Personality Traits

behavioral dispositions that endure over time and across situations

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Trait Approach

focuses on the extent to which individuals differ on those personality dispositions

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Eysenck's Hierarchical Model

Three traits:
1) Introversion-Extroversion: shy/reserved vs social/outgoing
2) Emotional stability: how changeable are your moods and emotions
3) Psychoticism (Constraint): are you restrained or uninhibited

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Five Factor Model

1) Openness to experience - receptiveness to new ideas and experiences
2) Conscientiousness - tendency to be reliable
3) Extraversion - desire for stimulation, activity, and social interaction
4) Agreeableness - selfless concern for other
5) Neuroticism - proneness to anxiety and negative emotion

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Genetic influence accounts for approximately how much of the variance between individuals in personality traits?

about half (40-60%)

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Temperaments

psychological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways
- present in infancy, assumed to be innate
- relatively stable over time

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Several temperamental aspects measured are...

- Activity level: overall amount of energy
- Emotionality: intensity of emotional reactions
- Sociability: tendency to affiliate with others

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Long-term implications of temperaments

research has demonstrated that early temperament is predictive of later personality and behaviors

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Age-related Change

in general, people become less neurotic, less extraverted, and less open to new experiences as they get older
- people also tend to become more agreeable and much more conscientious with age

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Behavior Approach System (BAS)

the brain system involved in the pursuit of incentives or rewards (Jeffrey Gray)

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Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)

the brain system that is sensitive to punishment and therefore inhibits behavior that might lead to danger or pain (Jeffrey Gray)

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Objective Measures

Relatively direct assessment of personality, usually based on information gathered through self-report questionnaires or observer ratings.

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Projective Measures

Personality tests that examine unconscious processes by having people interpret ambiguous stimuli.