LCT8: Sensation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in LCT8: Sensation Deck (40):
1

Sensation

the processes by which our sense organs receive information (energy) from the environment

2

Sensations are...

simple mindless things that happens

3

Transduction

process through which stimuli reaching the receptors are converted into neural impulses ... OR ... how physical signals from the environment are changed into the neural signals sent to the brain

4

Psychophysics

the study of the relationship between physical stimulation and subjective sensations

5

Absolute threshold

the smallest amount of stimulation that can be detected

6

Difference threshold

"just noticeable difference" (JND) - the smallest change in a stimulus that can be detected

7

Signal Detection Theory

theory that focuses on making decisions about stimuli when uncertain - detecting a stimulus is jointly determined by the signal and the subject's response criterion

8

Sensory Adaptation

a decrease in sensitivity to a constant level of stimulation

9

Basic Sensory Processes

- Vision
- Hearing
- Touch
- Taste
- Smell

10

What kind of neural signals do the eyes transduce light waves into?

electro-chemical neural signals

11

Where does transduction occur for our vision?

In the rods and cones

12

Rodes and Cones

photoreceptor cells on the retina

13

Rods

helps to see in low light, at night, and in peripheral vision - very sensitive, but gray-scale vision

14

Cones

color vision - less numerous, need high light levels

15

Where are the rods located?

outer portion of the retina

16

Where are the cones located?

inner portion of the retina

17

Ganglion Cells

send signals along their axons, which join to form the Optic Nerve

18

Blind Spot

where the Optic Nerve leaves the eye (optic disk)

19

What part of the eye initially captures light?

Photoreceptors

20

What part of the retina is most sensitive in the dark?

Rods

21

Optic Nerves

send signals from each eye to the thalamus

22

Optic Chiasm

where Optic Nerves cross

23

Visual Cortex

where visual information is transmitted to

24

Visual Pathway - Stimulas to transduction

Light - cornea - pupil (iris) - lens - retina (rods/cones)

25

Visual Pathway - Neural pathway

ganglion cells (optic nerves) - optic chiasm - thalamus - primary visual cortex

26

Where does color come from?

wavelengths reflecting off of objects

27

Sound waves vary in what?

Frequency (pitch) and amplitude (loudness)

28

Where does auditory transduction occur?

hair cells in the basilar membrane

29

Auditory localization

having two ears allows us to locate the source of a sound

30

Haptic/Cutaneous sense

sensory receptors in the skin detect pressure, temperature, and pain

31

Tactile stimulation

anything that makes contact with our skin

32

Pain

crucial but complex sense

33

Two types of pain transmission fibers

- Sharp pains = fast-acting A-delta fibers
- Dull pains = slow-acting C-fibers

34

Gate Central Theory of Pain

neural "gates" in the spinal cord control perceptions of pain

35

Two distinct neural pathways...

- to the somatosensory cortex (thalamus)
- to the emotional centers of the brain (limbic system)

36

Taste receptors

respond to the chemical substances that produce at least five basic sensations : sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami (savory)

37

Olfactory bulb

brain center for smell

38

Kinesthetic Sense

ability to judge where one's limbs are in space (movement, orientation, posture)

39

Vestibular sense

ability to compare one's bodily position to the upright position (balance - and movement)

40

Extrasensory Perception

some people think they have additional sensory systems that allow them to... know what other people are thinking, or to predict the future