Leaders does not drive change but rather design organisation (rewards and incentives) for the change to potentially emerge.
Leadership is influence. Can be learned.
- help others to achieve a goal
- support personal growth
- keep productivity
- be respected
what is one thing that leadership requires
Leadership in terms of 3 factors
- their trait (qualities of leaders honesty, etc.)
- their behaviour
- their situational leadership
Studies of traits and behaviour were not successful enough to predictive leadership success or failure. Only the situational aspect made the theories more valid.
Two categories of Leadership theories:
A) Focus on individual factors
- Trait theories
- Charismatic leadership
- Behavioural theories
B) Focus on situational factors (contingency approaches):
- Leadership Contingency Theory
- Path-goal Theory
- Situational leadership
Example of Trait Theory: Plato
Leaders achieve in 3 classes:
- Governing class - Rulers (reason)
- Protective class - Warriors (spirit)
- Productive class - Workers (appetite)
Example of Trait Theory: 7 leadership traits
- Drive (achievement motivation, ambition, energy, tenacity, initiative)
- Desire to lead
- Honesty and Integrity
- Job-relevant knowledge
Individual Factors: What is charismatic leadership?
Charisma = Dimension of leadership linked to the ability of the leader to provide vision, a sense of mission, instilling pride, respect, trust.
- have a strong sense of purpose
- be assertive and self-confident
- often unconventional
Charismatic leaders induce change.
‘Charisma’ can be learned; training for this exists.
Steps to Charismatic Leadership
Individual Factors: Behavioural Theories
(2 types of behaviours)
2 main types of behaviours:
Task behaviours: concered for production
- Leader facilitates the achievement of goals and ensures efficient production.
Relationship behaviours: concerned for people
- The leader exploit (make full use of and take benefit from) interpersonal relationships; takes a personal interest in the needs and well-being of employees. Job relationships are characterised by mutual trust, respect, and regard for employees feelings.
Individual Factors: Behavioural Theories
Authoritarian vs. Democratic
- Performance higher when leader present
- Leader not liked
- The members were (1) submissive towards the leader or (2) demanded attention.
- Members developed a pattern of aggressive behaviourtoward one another – attacks on group members
- Performance high even when leader absent
- Leader liked
- Relationsspontaneous, fact-based and friendly
Behavioural Theory: The Leadership Grid
The model does not suggest that behaviours should be done at the same time or interchangeably but rather that every decision a manager/leader axes involves weighing these two perspectives of people and task, and understanding how both demands can be met the same time.
Task vs. People focused
- Which of the two leadership behaviours is then most effective?
What is the connection between the two leadership styles and (1) job performance and (2) job satisfaction?
Too much focus on task may lead to grievances and absenteeism, levels of job satisfaction
Too much focus on relationships may lead to low productivity
High-high is generally best, but not in all situations, which gave rise to situational/contingency theories
- Some situations require concern for people
- Other situations demand concern for production
Situational Factors: Fielder’s Contingency Theory
To be effective, leadership must be adapted to the situation OR adapt the situation to your leadership.
Situational Factors: House’s Path-goal Theory
The leader’s impact on outcomes is “moderated” by environmental and subordinate contingencies.
- Level of authority
- Perceived ability
- Need for achievement
- Task structure
When a leader is able to compensate for things lacking in the setting, employees are likely to be satisfied with the leader.
Performance should improve as leaders clarify the paths to performance.
Situational Factors: Situational Leadership (Matrix)
New team members have different levels of commitment and skill compared to long-term members (see lower image).
Identifying the employee's readiness is crucial for any leader. It helps them to identify the optimal leadership style given the context of the team member.
Leaders vs. Managers
All managers may/should be leaders but leaders are not always good managers.
Leaders set goals, while the role of an effective manager is to ensure that objectives are met in pursuit the overall aim.