Learning & Ethology Flashcards Preview

GRE Psych > Learning & Ethology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning & Ethology Deck (78)
Loading flashcards...
1

Altruism

A form of helping behavior where the animal's intent is to benefit other animals at some cost to itself

2

Behavioral Contracts

A therapeutic technique that is a negotiated agreement between two parties that explicitly stipulates the behavioral change that is desired and indicates consequences of certain acts

3

Classical Conditioning

Also known as respondent conditioning, it is a result of learning connections between different events

4

Conditioned Response

In classical conditioning, it is the learned response to a conditioned stimulus

5

Conditioned Stimulus

In classical conditioning, it is a neutral stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response

6

Discriminative Stimulus

In operant conditioning, it is a stimulus condition that indicates that the organism's behavior will have consequences

7

Ethology

The study of animals in their natural environment

8

Fixed-Action Pattern

A behavior that is relatively stereotyped and appears to be species-typical

9

Fixed-Interval (FI)

In operant conditioning, it is when the behavior is reinforced on the first response after a fixed period of time since the last reinforcement

10

Fixed-Ratio (FR)

In operant conditioning, it is when behavior is reinforced after a fixed number of responses

11

Flooding

A behavior modification technique used to treat anxiety disorders by exposing the client to the anxiety-producing stimulus

12

Garcia Effect

Named after researcher John Garcia, it is basically food aversion that occurs when people attribute illness to a particular food

13

Imprinting

An attachment bond between an organism and an object in the environment

14

Law of Effect

Proposed by E. L. Thorndike, the law holds that if a response is followed by an annoying consequence, the animal will be less likely to emit the same response in the future

15

Negative Reinforcement

The probability that the desired response will be performed is increased by removing something undesirable whenever the desired response is made

16

Operant Conditioning

Instrumental conditioning, reward learning, is based on learning the relationship between one's actions and their consequences

17

Overjustification Effect

The tendency of people to stop liking something that they previously enjoyed because of receiving a reward for the behavior

18

Positive Reinforcement

Increasing the probability that a desired response will be performed by reinforcing (rewarding) that response when it does occur

19

Premack Principle

A more preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less preferred activity

Ex: Parents telling kids to do their homework before they can play

20

Preparedness

Inborn tendency to associate certain stimuli with certain consequences (John Garcia)

21

Punishment

The probability that a response will be made is decreased by giving the organism something undesirable whenever the response is made

22

Shaping

In operant conditioning, it is the process of reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior

23

Systematic Desensitization

A technique used to treat phobias by pairing the object of fear with relaxation

24

Unconditioned Response

In classical conditioning, it is a response that occurs without any behavioral conditioning - like a reflex

25

Unconditioned Stimulus

In classical conditioning, it is a stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response, without any behavioral conditioning

26

Variable Interval (VI)

In operant conditioning, it is when a behavior is reinforced at the first response made after a variable amount of time has elapsed since the last reinforcement

27

Variable-Ratio (VR)

In operant conditioning, it is when behavior is reinforced after a varying number of responses

28

Type(s) of operant conditioning that will increase the probability of a particular response

Positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement

29

EO Wilson is a major proponent of...

Sociobiology

30

Sociobiology

Branch of science that investigates the effect various social behaviors have on fitness