Lec 15 ARDS Path Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lec 15 ARDS Path Deck (24):
1

Histologically what do you see with acute lung injury / ARDS?

mostly = see diffuse alveolar damage

less common = diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, acute eosinophilic pneumonia

2

What is acute interstitial pneumonia?

idiopathic diffuse alveolar damage

3

What are some common causes of ARDS?

- fulminant infection
- post trauma
- drug overdose
- sepsis
- aspirations

4

What is pathogenesis of diffuse alveolar damage?

- not well understood

injury related to vascular endothelium and alveoli results in excess vascular fluid and protein leakage [early]

later --> cellular necrosis, epithelial hyperplasia, inflammation, fibrosis

5

What is pathology of DAD?

- acute diffuse alveolar damage + necrosis of type I pneumoncytes

- exudation of protein rich fluid into alveolai that organizes into hyaline membranes

recovery = hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes and interstitial fibrosis

6

What are the 3 overlapping phases of DAD?

- exudative phase [days 1-7]
- proliferative/organizing [7-12]
- fibrotic phase [> 21 days]

7

What are gross features of lungs in ARDS?

- wet
- boggy
- airless
- heavy

8

What do you see in exudative phase of DAD [1st wk after injury]?

- interstitial and alveolar edema
- fibrin exudate
- hyaline membranes [days 3-7]

9

What is simple eosinophilic pneumonia? What usually causes it?

- mild self limited pulmonary infiltrates + peripheral blood eosinophilia

usually due to ascaris

10

What do you see in tropical eosinophilic pneumonia? What usually cause it?

high fever, wheezing, peripheral blood eosinophilia

usually 2ndary to filarial infection

11

What do you see in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia?

subacute illness; fever dyspnea peripheral blood eosinophilia

patchy infiltrates that resolve + reappear in same location

pt usually has asthma history

12

Who get chronic eosinophilic pneumonia? What causes it?

- seen in patients with asthma history

can be idiopathic or due to drug toxicity, L-tryptophan ingestion, fungus, parasites

13

What do you see in acute eosinophilic pneumonia?

- acute onset respiratory failure + severe hypoxemia

often have no peripheral blood eosinophilia; usually no history of asthma

14

What do you see clinically/histologically in eosinophilic pneumonia?

- intra-alveolar fibrin, macrophages, abundant eosinophils, eosinophil microabscesses

+/- organizing pneumonia

15

Eosinophilic pneumonia is sensitive to what treatment?

sensitive to steroids

16

How do people with acute eosinophilic pneumonia represent?

may present with respiratory failure = clinically have ARDS

17

What do you see histologically in acute eosinophilic pneumonia?

hyaline membranes like those in DAD but plus eosinophils

18

What are histo features of classic/chronic EP?

intra-alveolar fibrin and macrophages
organizing pneumonia

19

What is organizing pneumonia?

airspace organization = loos connective tissue in alveolar seen as common manifestation of lung injury as lung attempts repair

20

What are some settings where you see organizing pneumonia?

- as primary porcess [OP pattern]
- as component of another process [HSP, acute pneumonia]
- secondary reaction adjacent to unrelated process [next to tumor, granuloma, abscess]

21

What is organizing pneumonia pattern?

specific pattern of organizing pneumonia centered around small airways

presents in subacute way with SOB and cough

22

What do you see histologically in OP pattern of organizing pneumonia?

- patchy bronchiolocentric organizing pneumonia
- may have fibroblastic plugs in small airway lumens
- minimal chronic inflammation in adjacent alveoli
- interveneing lung is normal
- no other significant findings

23

What are potential etiologics of OP pattern?

- associated wtih collagen vascular disease, drug reaction

24

What do you call idiopathic OP pattern?

cryptogenic organizing pneumonia [COP]