Lec 78 Temperament and Personality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lec 78 Temperament and Personality Deck (25)
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What is temperament?

enduring biologically based traits
stable over time = "natural predisposition"


What is personality?

temperament PLUS motivations and cognitions, combo of heritable neurobiologically based traits [temperament] and traits reflecting sociocultural learning [character dimension] = become way one thinks, feels, behaves, relates to others

some stability by preschool and more and more stable with age


What is thomas and chess model of temperament?

3 discrete types of temperament
easy = 40%
difficult = 10%
slow to warm = "shy" = 15%
unable to identify = 35%


What are categorical models vs process oriented models of temperament and personality?

categorical = focus on similarities among people; people fit into limited # of discrete categories

dynamic/process oriented = focused on individual, how people are different from one another; how behavior changes over time and situations


What are Eysenck's 3 factors in adult personality?

- psychoticism
- extraversion
- neuroticism


What is clonigers theory of temperament and personality?

temperament + character = personality

temperament = neuro based traits that are heritable
- 1. harm avoidance 2. novelty seeking 3. reward dependence 4. persistence

character = 3 dimensions that reflect sociocultural learning
- 1. self directedness: self-acceptance vs not accepting self
- 2. cooperativeness: acceptance of others vs intolerance or revengeful
- 3. self-transcendence: individual feels part of things vs unfulfilled


What is harm avoidance?

early appearing anxiety-related trait
associated with mood/anxiety disorders


What is the five factor model of personality/temperament?

most human personality traits can be put in one of 5 broad categories = OCEAN
- Openness to experience [vs closed mind]
- Conscientiousness [vs negligence]
- Extraversion [vs introversion]
- Agreeableness [vs antagonism]
- Neuroticism [vs emotional stability]

can predict outcomes


Extraversion in the 5 factor model is associated with what?

- tendency to experience positive emotion
- reward-seeking personality


Neuroticism in the 5 factor model is associated with what?

- tendency to experience negative emotion
- vulnerable to psychopathology
- threat-response system: insecurity in relationships, sensitive to threat and punishment
- harm avoidance


Conscientiousness in the 5 factor model is associated with what?

- tendency to inhibit impulses in order to follow rules
- acedemic/occupational success
- likely to live longer
- lowest levels of this appear in adolesence


Agreeableness in the 5 factor model is associated with what?

- understanding others emotions = empathy
- altruism, positive relationships
- lowest levels of this appear in adolescence


Openness to experience in the 5 factor model is associated with what?

- tendency to process abstract perceptual info flexibly and effectively including imagination, intellectual engagement, aesthetic interest
- intelligence
- larger bandwith of info processing


What is the neural network model?

personality style results from activity of 2 behavioral model systems
1. behavioral approach system = governs response to reward stimuli, extraversion, positive, DA

2. behavioral inhibition system = governs response to punishment, threat, novelty, aversive stimuli, neuroticism


What are genetics of personality?

- no clear consensus of specific genes
- genetic influence on personality trait from 30-50%
- heritability for extroversion = 49%
- heritability for neuroticism = 41%


Is personality stable over time?

differing opinions

- personality is more stable in unchanging environment but harder-wired traits may manifest more strongly during stress, new situations, new roles


What is the fetal programming hypothesis?

Fetus adjusts phenotype (e.g., metabolism and stress reactivity) on basis of maternal nutritional and hormonal cues about the outside world, as a means of optimally adapting to the (anticipated) conditions of the postnatal environment.


Introversion puts you at risk for what type of disorder?

anxiety disorders?


High neuroticism puts you at risk for what type of disorders?

anxiety, MDD, somatofrorm


What are personality trait risk factors for psych disorders?

- high neuroticism
- low conscientiousness
- low agreeableness
- low extraversion


behavioral inhibition in children associated with what disorders?

anxiety, depression


impulsivity puts you at risk for what disorders/

antisocial PD


Low aggreableness/conscientiousness predicts what?

juvenile delinquency


What are risk factors for substance use disorders?

- less constraint
- increase positive and negative affectivity


WHat are resilience factors for psych disorders?

- easy temperament in child
- behavioral inhibition in children
- high "hardiness" score = openness + conscientiousness + positive emotionality --> better QOL and less psych distress