Flashcards in Lec 82 Child Development Deck (40)
What is growth?
increase in tissue through size or number of cells
What is maturation?
sequential emergence of specific pre-determined capacities
What is development?
progression of functions and skills resulting from interaction between individual and their environment
What is development vs growth?
growth = child getting bigger in size
development = how child able to do more complex things as he gets older
What are the 4 domains of development?
- motor [gross and fine]
At newborn what:
motor: basic reflexes [rooting, sucking, palmar, moro, plantar], limited purposeful movement
cognitive: sensorimotor = sense things
language: just crying, cannot localize sound
- temperament = basically genetic
At 6 mo what:
motor: manipulating objects, grasping, purposeful movement, reach for objects, transfer object from hand to hand, sit on your own, roll over
cognitive: sensorimotor, not yet object permanence, has some working memory
language: coo by 2-4 mo, babble by 5-6 mo
social/emotional: looks at you but ignores you
At 1 yr what:
motor: most kids walking
cognitive: object permanence
language: say mama, dada, + one other word
social/emotional: can follow commands, achieved trust vs mistrust, has moved from differentiation to practicing, has separation anxiety
At 2 yr what:
motor: run, climb stairs, copy a line
language: 2 word phrases, about 250 words = synaptic density in wernicke/broca
social/emotional: say "no", toilet training begins, anal stage/ shame/doubt, parallel play [play next to each other but not collaboratively]
At 3 yr what:
motor: ride tricycle [3 yrs = 3 wheels], copy a circle, toilet tratined
language: speaks sentences, grammar, knows full name
social/emotional: gender identity usually solidified, will not play cooperatively yet, object constancy, initiative vs guilt stage, freuds phallic phase
At latency period [age 6-11] what:
latency = less active psychosexual development
motor: not much new
cognitive: brain 90% of adult volume, by age 7 myelination complete but pruning in PFC continues, capable of paying attention, self-regulation, consideration of others, concrete operational thought, greater empathy/altruism, less egocentrism
language: not much new
social/emotional: sex preference often established
At adolescence what:
cognitive: capacity for abstraction, see from another's point of view, hypotheticals, probabilities, moral reasoning, universal ethical principles
social/emotional: self identity, knowing who you are/where you fit in
physical growth, puberty [females 9-11, males 2 yrs later]
When is baby able to coo by? babble?
coo = 2-4 mo
babble = 5-6 mo
What are piaget's 4 stages?
1. sensorimotor [age 0 -2]
2. preoperational [age 3-6]
3. concrete operations [age 7-12]
4. formal operations [age 13+]
What characterizes piaget's sensorimotor stage?
- exploring environment through sensing things and learning how to manipulate their bodies
What characterizes piaget's preoperational stage?
age 3-6 =preschool
- has language without logic
- magical thinking
- animism [anything that moves is alive]
- con concept real vs imaginary
What characterizes piaget's concreate operations stage?
onset of logical thought
What characterizes piaget's formal operations stage?
still has logic but now capable of abstract thought, imagining possibilities, hypotheticals
What are thomas and chess different types of temperament?
easy = 80% = pretty able to be soothed/predictable
difficult = 10% = greater challenge to soother
slow to warm = 10% = at first seem difficult but when you spend time with them they become easy
What are margaret mahler's stages of attachment?
1. normal autism
2. symbiosis = by 2 mo
3. differentiation = 4-5 mo
4. practicing = by 1 yr
5. Reapprochement = 1-2 yrs
6. object constancy = 2-5 yrs
What is normal autism?
during 1st few wks baby is in own world
does not interact much with the outside world = not aware of others
What is symbiosis?
- by 2 mo
baby fused with mom, has no sense that body is separate from mom
What is differentiation?
by 4-5 mo
- starts to separate from mom, look around, discover outside world, attention wanders, finds fingers/toes
- develops transient stranger anxiety
What is practicing?
- at 1 yr
walk, goes away from mom and ends up alone, hallmark of separation
- conflicting desire to be independent and need for mothering/closeness
What is rapprochement?
between ages 1-2 yrs
child goes out into the world, feels anxious, and comes back to check in with mom
What is object constancy?
child internalizes mother as stale and reliable so can tolerate separation
develop sense that mother internalized no matter where kid goes, even in mom's absence
What are bolby and ainsworth attachment styles?
secure = reach object constancy, cry when parent leaves but tolerate and happy to see parent when returns
insecure = avoidant, disengaged, may treat mother/strangers equally, pathologically shy or ambivalent
What are freud's psychosexual stages?
1. oral = 0-1 yrs, babies suck on things
2. anal = 1-3 yrs, goes along with toilet training, preoccupied with bathroom, focus on controlling bowel movements
3. genital = 3-5 yrs, interested in babies, opposite sex, playing with genitals
What does a newborn need?
cognitive = ordinary stimuli
language = to hear, be talked to
social/emotional = basic needs [eating/sleeping/holding], basic trust