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Brain And Behavior Exam 4 > Lec 82 Child Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lec 82 Child Development Deck (40)
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What is growth?

increase in tissue through size or number of cells


What is maturation?

sequential emergence of specific pre-determined capacities


What is development?

progression of functions and skills resulting from interaction between individual and their environment


What is development vs growth?

growth = child getting bigger in size
development = how child able to do more complex things as he gets older


What are the 4 domains of development?

- motor [gross and fine]
- language
- cognitive
- social/emotional


At newborn what:
- motor
- cognitive
- language
- social/emotional

motor: basic reflexes [rooting, sucking, palmar, moro, plantar], limited purposeful movement

cognitive: sensorimotor = sense things

language: just crying, cannot localize sound

- temperament = basically genetic


At 6 mo what:
- motor
- cognitive
- language
- social/emotional

motor: manipulating objects, grasping, purposeful movement, reach for objects, transfer object from hand to hand, sit on your own, roll over

cognitive: sensorimotor, not yet object permanence, has some working memory

language: coo by 2-4 mo, babble by 5-6 mo

social/emotional: looks at you but ignores you


At 1 yr what:
- motor
- cognitive
- language
- social/emotional

motor: most kids walking

cognitive: object permanence

language: say mama, dada, + one other word

social/emotional: can follow commands, achieved trust vs mistrust, has moved from differentiation to practicing, has separation anxiety


At 2 yr what:
- motor
- cognitive
- language
- social/emotional

motor: run, climb stairs, copy a line

cognitive: preoperational

language: 2 word phrases, about 250 words = synaptic density in wernicke/broca

social/emotional: say "no", toilet training begins, anal stage/ shame/doubt, parallel play [play next to each other but not collaboratively]


At 3 yr what:
- motor
- cognitive
- language
- social/emotional

motor: ride tricycle [3 yrs = 3 wheels], copy a circle, toilet tratined

cognitive: preoperational

language: speaks sentences, grammar, knows full name

social/emotional: gender identity usually solidified, will not play cooperatively yet, object constancy, initiative vs guilt stage, freuds phallic phase


At latency period [age 6-11] what:
- motor
- cognitive
- language
- social/emotional

latency = less active psychosexual development

motor: not much new

cognitive: brain 90% of adult volume, by age 7 myelination complete but pruning in PFC continues, capable of paying attention, self-regulation, consideration of others, concrete operational thought, greater empathy/altruism, less egocentrism

language: not much new

social/emotional: sex preference often established


At adolescence what:
- motor
- cognitive
- language
- social/emotional


cognitive: capacity for abstraction, see from another's point of view, hypotheticals, probabilities, moral reasoning, universal ethical principles


social/emotional: self identity, knowing who you are/where you fit in

physical growth, puberty [females 9-11, males 2 yrs later]


When is baby able to coo by? babble?

coo = 2-4 mo
babble = 5-6 mo


What are piaget's 4 stages?

1. sensorimotor [age 0 -2]
2. preoperational [age 3-6]
3. concrete operations [age 7-12]
4. formal operations [age 13+]


What characterizes piaget's sensorimotor stage?

age 0-2
- exploring environment through sensing things and learning how to manipulate their bodies


What characterizes piaget's preoperational stage?

age 3-6 =preschool
- has language without logic
- magical thinking
- animism [anything that moves is alive]
- con concept real vs imaginary


What characterizes piaget's concreate operations stage?

age 7-12
onset of logical thought


What characterizes piaget's formal operations stage?

age 13+
still has logic but now capable of abstract thought, imagining possibilities, hypotheticals


What are thomas and chess different types of temperament?

easy = 80% = pretty able to be soothed/predictable

difficult = 10% = greater challenge to soother

slow to warm = 10% = at first seem difficult but when you spend time with them they become easy


What are margaret mahler's stages of attachment?

1. normal autism
2. symbiosis = by 2 mo
3. differentiation = 4-5 mo
4. practicing = by 1 yr
5. Reapprochement = 1-2 yrs
6. object constancy = 2-5 yrs


What is normal autism?

during 1st few wks baby is in own world
does not interact much with the outside world = not aware of others


What is symbiosis?

- by 2 mo
baby fused with mom, has no sense that body is separate from mom


What is differentiation?

by 4-5 mo
- starts to separate from mom, look around, discover outside world, attention wanders, finds fingers/toes
- develops transient stranger anxiety


What is practicing?

- at 1 yr
walk, goes away from mom and ends up alone, hallmark of separation
- conflicting desire to be independent and need for mothering/closeness


What is rapprochement?

between ages 1-2 yrs
child goes out into the world, feels anxious, and comes back to check in with mom


What is object constancy?

2-5 yrs
child internalizes mother as stale and reliable so can tolerate separation
develop sense that mother internalized no matter where kid goes, even in mom's absence


What are bolby and ainsworth attachment styles?

secure = reach object constancy, cry when parent leaves but tolerate and happy to see parent when returns

insecure = avoidant, disengaged, may treat mother/strangers equally, pathologically shy or ambivalent


What are freud's psychosexual stages?

1. oral = 0-1 yrs, babies suck on things

2. anal = 1-3 yrs, goes along with toilet training, preoccupied with bathroom, focus on controlling bowel movements

3. genital = 3-5 yrs, interested in babies, opposite sex, playing with genitals


What does a newborn need?

cognitive = ordinary stimuli

language = to hear, be talked to

social/emotional = basic needs [eating/sleeping/holding], basic trust


What are Erikson's 8 conflicts in life?

1. trust vs mistrust
- infancy, will my needs be met?

2. autonomy vs shame/doubt
- toddlerhood, want to do things for themselves, shame if can't do it on their own

3. initiative vs guilt
- preschool, doing more elaborate things that involve planning feels good if goes well, guilt if doesn't work out

4. industry vs inferiority
- school age, preoccupied with what they are good at and playing to their strengths

5. identity vs role confusion
- adolescence, who am I?

6. intimacy vs isolation
- young adulthood, who am I going to be with?

7. generativity vs stagnation
- middle age, am I being productive?

8. integrity vs despair
- old age, can I feel good about my life and what I have accomplished