Flashcards in Lec1: Finding Land Deck (20):
How many continents are larger than Antartica?
How large is Antartica in metres squared?
How long is 1 polar day?
What percentage of the world's freshwater is contained in Antartica?
List the 5 challenges faced by early explorers.
1. Fast winds, sea swells, icebergs
2. Simple navigation instruments
3. Poor nutrition and food storage
4. Ships --> limited size, strength, maneuverability
5. Difficulty finding longitude
What were the motivations for early, later, and 18th century explorers respectively?
Early = New trade routes + territories
Later = Sealers + Whalers
18th century = Locate Southern Magnetic Pole (so longitude can be determined)
Give the significant dates and corresponding famous explorer.
400BC = Aristotle
1577 = Sir Francis Drake
1652 = Abel Tasman
1773 = James Cook
1820 = Thaddeus Von Bellingshausen (and Nathaniel Palmer)
1820 = William Bransfield + William Smith
1821 = John Davis
1823 = James Weddell
1831 = John Briscoe
1838 = Jules Sebastien Dumont D'urville
1839 = John Ballery
1840 = USA Exploring Expedition + Charles Wilkes
1840 = James Clark Ross
Predicted Terra Australis Incognita taking up most of Southern Hemisphere
Sir Francis Drake achievement?
Discovered Drake Passage between South America and Antartic Peninsuala
Abel Tasman achievement?
Split Australia from Terra Australis Incognita
James Cook achievements?
1. First circumnavigation
2. Crossed antartic circle
3. No Terra Australis Incognita (came across no land or islands)
Thaddeus Von Bellinghausen achievements?
1. First continental sighting
2. Second circumnavigation
3. Sealing ships at Deception Islands/South Shetland Islands
William Bransfield and Smith achievement?
Sight and chart peninsuala
John Davis achievement?
First continental landing
James Waddell achievement?
Furthest South (Weddell Sea)
John Biscoe achievements?
1. Charts coast (Enderby land)
2. Third circumnavigation
John Ballerys achievement?
Lands below antartic circle
Jules Sebastien Dumont D'urville achievements?
1. Maps Adelie coast
2. Continental landing
USA Exploring Expedition (Charles Wilkes) achievement
Charts 1500 miles of Australian East Coast (Wilkes Land)