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Flashcards in Lec3: Exploring the Continent Deck (40):

Australian Antarctic Expedition:
1. What year?
2. Who lead it?
3. What was the ship?

1. 1911
2. Douglas Mawson
3. Aurora


From what island did Douglas Mawson's AAE first depart, and what did they build here?

MacQuarie island , where they built a radiostation.


Who took the first plane to Antarctica, and from where did the flight depart? Also, what ended up happening to the plane?

Douglas Mawson took the first plane from MacQuarie island, but it broke down and had to be used as a propellor-driven snow tractor.


What two lands did Douglas Mawson find on his AAE?

Kind George V Land and Queen Mary Land.


Who were the three members of Douglas Mawson's Far Eastern Party?

Mawson, Ninnis, Hertz


Who was the first to perish on the Far Eastern Party?How did he perish and how did this impact the party?

Ninnis fell into a crevasse, taking most of the food and supplies with him. This leaves Mawson and Hertz with 10 days worth of food for 500km.


After losing their food and supplies to their companion that fell in a crevasse, what did the remaining members of the Far Eastern Party (AAE) eat?

Their huskies, including the livers.


Who was the second member of the Far Eastern Party to perish (AAE) and how so?

Hertz grew increasingly delirious and later died of Hypervitamosis A (Vitamin A poisoning). Vit A is in high amounts in Husky livers.


Mawson encountered a blizzard as he drew nearer to the Aurora just as it was about to set sail. How much time did this leave him to cover how much distance?

10 days to cover 50km.


Where did Mawson have to overwinter after he missed the Aurora?

Cape Denison. (overwintered TWICE)


Imperial Transantarctic Expedition:
1. What year?
2. Who lead it?
3. What was the ship?

1. 1914
2. Ernest Shackleton
3. Endurance


From where did the Endurance depart and then land?

Departed South Georgia to land in Weddell Sea.


Who laid the Depots that Shackleton's ITE planned to use to cross antarctica?

A support party from the Aurora.


Why was the crew of the Aurora that was designated to lay the depots for Shackleton's ITE marooned?

Because the Aurora blew off its moorings, but the crew still managed to lay depots the following spring.


Where was the Endurance crushed by ice?

Weddell Sea.


After the endurance was crushed by ice, the crew took three lifeboats. What were the names of the boats, and what see did they cross to reach what destination?

Took the James Caird, Dudley Docker and Stancomb Willis, crossing Elephant Sea to reach Elephant Island.


After the crew of Shackleton's ITE reached Elephant Island, which lifeboat did Shackleton take and what did he accomplish?

Took the James Caird to South Georgia and reached Stromness Whaling Station. From here, he rescued the remaining men from Elephant Island, with NO LOSS OF LIFE.


What was the name of Shackleton's final expedition?

Shackleton-Rowett Expedition.


When, how and where did Shackleton die?

1922 of a Heart Attack, in South Georgia while on the Shackleton-Rowett Expedition.


What event marked the end of the Heroic Age?

Death of Ernest Shackleton.


In what year did the Wilkins-Hearst Expedition take place? Who was the pilot and what was the plane's name?

In 1928, Carls Eielson and the Lockhead Veega.


Where in Antarctica did the first Antarctic flight take place, and who did it involve?

Carl Eielson circled Deception Island.


Where in Antartica did the era of aerial mapping begin and who did it involve?

Carls Eielson and Sir Hubert Wilkins flew down the Antarctic Peninsula.


American Aerial Mapping Survey:
1. When did it take place?
2. Who was the pilot
3. Where did he fly to?

In 1928, Richard Byrd flew to the South Pole.


Transcontinental Flight:
1. When did it take place?
2. Who were the pilots?
3. From where to where did they fly, and what mishaps did they encounter?

1. 1935
2. Lincoln Ellsworth and Herbert Hollick-Kenyon
3. Antarctic Peninsula to Ross Sea, but they RAN OUT OF FUEL partway and had to complete the journey on foot to the Bay of Whales


In terms of the global political climate during the Mechanised Age, what were the "two" key shifts in focus?

From Exploration to War, and war then shifted the focus from entrepreneurship to science (extensive infrastructure).


What event reduced available funds during the mechanised age?

The Great Depression of the 1930s


What was the purpose of Government's funding expeditions?

To claim more territories.


Technology advanced Whaling, allowing for a large-scale factory to be established in which Antarctic location?

Ross Sea


Regarding the three main millitary operations in Antarctica:
1. Name each and when it took place
2. Give the associated national sector

1943: Operation Tabarin (British Navy)
1946: Operation Highjump (US Navy)
1955: Operation Deep Freeze (US millitary)


What was the purpose of operation Tarbarin and where did they establish bases?

Antartic Peninsuala, where they conducted meteorology and reconnaissance.


What was the purpose of Operation Highjump, and what was the name and purpose of the Operation immediately following it?

1. Used lots of men and vehicles for Polar Expedition
2. Operation Windmill - surveying


What was the purpose of Operation Deep Freeze?

To establish bases in McMurdo Sounds and the South Pole.


When did the Commonwealth Transantarctic exhibition take place and who lead it?

1955, Vivian Fuchs


The Commonwealth was built around what event, and when did this event take place?

IGY (International Geophysical Year) of 1957


In terms of the CTE, which 3 locations did Hillary travel through to lay depots?

Scott's Base to Skeleton Glacier to Polar Plateau


What were Hillary's achievements upon reaching the South Pole?

1. 3rd to reach pole, and 1st after Robert Scott.
2. 1st to reach pole using LAND vehicles (Massey Ferguson tractors and a Weasel, which was abandoned).


In what year did Vivian Fuchs reach the South Pole, and at which location did he meet up with Hillary?

1958, and met Hillary at Depot 700.


From where to where did Vivian Fuchs travel during the CTE, and how much ground did he cover in how many days?

From the Weddell Sea to Ross Sea, covering 3500km over 100 days.


What took place in 1970s in terms of Antarctic exploration?

Development of GPS.