Lec10: Intro to Glia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lec10: Intro to Glia Deck (15):
1

What are the 3 types of glial cells?

Microglia, Oligodendrocytes, Astrocytes

2

Microglia are cells of which body system?

CNS immune cells.

3

What is the origin of microglia?

Monolytic/Myeloid origin.

4

Are microglia the only CNS immune cells?

No.

5

Why are microglia termed "professional phagocytes"?

They are able to phagocyse many materials, unlike many other phagocytes which are overly specialised and only able to phagocyse a small reportoire of materials.

6

Microglia respond to cytokine release. What are the two responses of the microglia?

1. Secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines.
2. Function as APCs

7

What are perivascular macrophages, and name some of the different varieties?

They communicate with blood vessels.
-Foamy, phagocytic, non-phagocytic, APCs, Ramified, Activated

8

What is neurological classification based on, and compare this to a better method it should be based on?

Based on the cell's appearance, but should be classified on cell markers (as it alludes to function).

9

What are the two reasons for there being no FDA-approved drug to target microglia as a therapeutic target?

1. Drugs must be able to cross an intact BBB
2. Functionally heterogenous target specificity - that is, many body cells (eg. kuppfer cells) are of similar origin to microglia, thus drugs targeting microglia may target these other cells, causing unwanted side effects elsewhere in the body.

10

What are 3 potentially therapeutic strategies concerning microglia if appropriate drugs can be manufactured?

1. Increase phagocytosis to clear debris
2. Supress APC activity - to prevent autoimmune disease
3. Either stimulate or inhibit inflammatory functions

11

What are the 5 functions of astrocytes?

1. Supports neuronal cells - provides nutrients and clears wastes
2. Supports Neurovascular unit
3. Produce NT and clears NT from synapse
4. Releases neurotrophic factors (NF)
5. Has "progenitor qualities"

12

Describe how astrocytes operate in an immune response?

They migrate to the site of injury in response to chemokine and cytokine release, and then release their own chemokines and NF.

13

Name 4 chemokines produced by astrocytes.

IP-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-10

14

Name three ways in which astrocytes are a problem with regards to disease.

1. Loss of neuronal support = VERY BAD
2. Produce neuron-damaging inflammatories
3. Origin of glioblastoma (so you must control astrocyte proliferation).

15

How are astrocytes detected in neural tissue?

If they stain GFAP positive in culture.