LEC57: Salivary glands & Exocrine pancreas Flashcards Preview

Structures: Part Deux > LEC57: Salivary glands & Exocrine pancreas > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC57: Salivary glands & Exocrine pancreas Deck (56):
1

what kind of glands are salivary

exocrine

2

what kind of glands are pancreas glands

exocrine & endocrine

3

what are salivary & pancreas glands assoc w/? 

both functionally & structurally, assoc w/ digestive system

4

how do exocrine glands release secretory product

via a duct onto external surface / into lumen of an organ

ie intestine

5

how do endocrine glands release their hormone

into blood circulation or tissue space

6

both exocrine and endocrine glands begin how

epithelial cell downgrowth into CT 

7

major salivary glands

parotid

submanidbular 

sublingual

produce ~90% totaly volume of saliva

8

minor salivary glands 

lips 

tongue

palates 

~10% total volume of saliva

9

identify the major salivary glands

 

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10

what does saliva contain?

how much/day?

water, ions, mucins, antimicrobial substances, IgA, enzymes, proteins 

~liter/day

11

saliva functions?

1) wet and lubricate oral mucosa

2) protect the oral mucosa and teeth

3) antimicrobial activity

4) initiate digestion of carbohydrates

5) hydrolysis of dietary lipids in newborns (lingual lipase)

12

what are parenchya 

parenchyma: secretory units and ducts

13

what are stroma

connective tissue supporting the parenchyma and containg cells, blood vessels, nerves

14

what kind of glands are salivary glands?

compound tubuloacinar / compound acinar glands

15

organization of saliva glands

capsule

CT septa

lobes

lobules

secretory units

ducts

16

tubular gland structure?

gland has 1 duct opening into 1 very elongated secretory unit that is tubular shape

can be single simple or branched ducts w/ compound gland

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17

acinar/alveolar gland structure

spherical gland

simple: 1 duct-1 gland 

compound: multiple ducts/multiple glands

18

tubuloacinar gland structure

combo of tubular and acinar gland

salivary gland can be tubular, acinar, or tubuloacinar

19

acini

secretory units (end pieces) of exocrine glands, whether rounded or tubular on sections 

 

20

how are acini classified

according to the nature of secretions they produce

21

types of acini?

serous, mucous

 

22

what are these 

 

Q image thumb

serous- watery secretion rich in enzymes & mucous- viscous secretion rich in glycoproteins - secretions from acini

23

types of acini of salivary glands?

1) serous acini

2) mucous acini

3) mixed acini, composed of mucous cells & serous cells, the latter making serous demilunes

24

what is this, what is arrow pointing to

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mixed acini (in submandibular gland) 

arrow > serous demilnue, consists of serous cells forming a semilunar cap at terminal portion of mucous acinus

25

what is this

 

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myoepithelial cells located btwn basal plasma membranes of acinar cells & basement membranes

26

make up of myoepithelial cells?

 

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actin, cytokeratin

have contractility

27

what is this 

 

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salivary gland

showing arrangement of acini and intralobular ducts 

28

cell type of duct cells?

simple columnar epithelium w/ basal striations

29

what marks mitochondrial enzymes?

succinic dehydrogenase

30

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striated duct 

marked by SDH in mitochondria

31

cell type lining intercalated / striated intralobular duct cells?

intercalated: simple cuboidal epithelium

striated: simple columnar epithelium

32

cell types of interlobular, lobar, and main excretory ducts?

interlobular: psuedostratified columnar 

lobar: stratified columnar 

main: stratified squamous

33

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interlobar ducts between lobes

34

what type of gland is parotid?

pure serous gland

ONLY serous acini; intercalated ducts; conspicuous striated ducts

35

what is this 

Q image thumb

parotid gland

pure serous gland

36

what is this

 

Q image thumb

submandibular  gland 

mixed gland; serous acini > mucous acini

mixed acini w/ serous demilunes 

intercalated ducts 

conspicuous straited ducts

37

what is this 

 

Q image thumb

sublingual gland 

mixed gland 

mucous acini > serous acini 

mixed acini w/ serous demilunes

intralobular ducts are poorly developed

38

rank salivary glands re: intercalated duct size

1) parotid

2) submandibular

3) sublingual - rare or absent intercalated ducts

39

rank salivary glands re: straited duct size

well-developed: parotid, submandibular 

poorly developed: sublingual 

40

how much of saliva does each salivary gland contribute? what is nature of secretion?

parotid: 30%, watery, rich in enzymes

sublingual: 5%, thick, mucous

submandibular: 60%, mixture of enzyme & mucous secretion of intermediate consistency

41

describe functional unit of salivary gland 

 

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42

describe saliva

hypotonic, alkaline solution in oral cavity

43

other functions of saliva?

lubrication

protection 

antimicrobial activity 

44

function of secretory IgA?

component of saliva with antibacterial and antiviral actions 

 

45

other functions of saliva

1) lubrication, protection, antimicrobial activity

2) antibacterial, antiviral via Secretory IgA

3) digestion of carbs via starch

4) growth factors- epidermal growth factor, nerve growth factor

5) biological active proteins (cystatins, histatins, proline-rich proteins) 

6) calcium for phosphate for remineralization of teeth 

46

pellicles?

proline-rich protective coat saliva forms on teeth

prevents adherence of bacteria, yeast

47

what do parasympathetic/sympathetic control of saliva contribute to?

parasympathetic: watery, electroyte rich saliva; high volume 

sympathetic: viscous, mucin and protein rich saliva; low volume

48

how do exocrine secretions leave pancreas?

main pancreatic duct joins bile duct to open into duodenum 

duct carrie secretion of exocrine pancreas into duodenum

49

what kind of gland is pancreas?

compound acinar gland - has CT septa, lobes, lobules 

50

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serous pancreatic acini 

contain centroacinar cells in lumen

51

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centroacinar cells from beginning portion of intercalated duct of exocrine pancreas

52

what and where is this? type of release involved? 

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zymogen granules of pancreatic acinar cells 

digestive enzymes within are released by merocrine mechanism 

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53

what/when does pancreas secrete?

pancreas secretes a fluid containing digestive enzymes & bicarbonate ions & water in response to acid chyme in duodenum & jejunum

54

what do pancreatic acinar cells secrete?

an enzyme-rich fluid 

stimulated by cholescystokinin (CCK) 

contains many digestive enzymes 

55

what do pancreatic duct cells secrete? stimulated by what?

a fluid rich in bicarbonate ions & water 

secretion is stimulated by secretin

autonomic nerves are secondarily important to secretion

56

what is same/different about exocrine pancreas and parotid gland?

both= compound acinar gland, contains only serous secretory acini 

HOWEVER, pancreas distinguishable histologically from parotid by: 

1) presence of centroacinar cells

2) absence of straited ducts 

3) absence of myoepithelial cells