Flashcards in Lecture 1 Deck (26):
What is nutrition??
The scientific study of food and how food nourishes our body and influences our health
What factors impact food choices??
-flavor, taste, texture
-routine and habits
-culture and religion
-environment: weather, soil condition, technology
-politics: labeling laws, trade
What are nutrients??
Chemical substances in food that are NECESSARY/CRITICAL for human growth and function and sustaining life
Has chemical composition
What are the functions of nutrients??
-provide energy for normal physiological function, activity, growth
-promote growth, maintenance and repair body tissues
-involved in physilogical processes: vision, bones, energy production, transportating nutrients, nerve impulses, muscle contraction, immune system etc.
What are essential nutrients??
-Nutrients with a specific biological function and without them your health will decline
-your body cannot make them on its own or they make it in insufficient quantities
-you must obtain them through your diet
The 6 essential nutrients??
-fat (some fatty acids)
-protein (some amino acids)
What are macronutrients??
-Needed in large quantities- grams
-carbs, fat, protein
-caveats: alcohol, water
What are micronutrients??
-Needed in small quantities- milligrams and micrograms
-not energy yielding
-vitamins and minerals
Contains the element carbon
-ex. Carbs, lipids, protein and vitamins
- water and minerals
-13 vitamins: A, D, E, K, C, B (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12, folate, panthothenic acid and biotin)
Examples of Fat soluble Vitamins
A, D, E, K
Examples of Water soluble vitamins
B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12, folate, pantothenic acid, biotin) and Vitamin C
Fat soluble vitamins
-stored in the body: do not need to consume daily ir weekly
- toxicitycan occur (likely with supplements)
-found in: largely in fat containing foods (veg oils, meat, dairy, nuts)
Water soluble vitamins
-not largely stores (excepts B12), excess excreted in urine
-consume daily and weekly
-toxicity via food unlikley
-deficiency can result quickly, esp. In growing conditions
-exist as elements already in the simplest chemical form
-not broken down during digestion or destroyed by heat/light
-Minor changes in atomic structure can occur, which can impact absorbability
-may exist as a compound: NaCl
-need >100 mg/d from diet and we need at least 5 g in the body
- CALCIUM, PHOSPHORUS, SODIUM, POTASSIUM, chloride, magnesium, sulfur
-need <5 g of each in the body
-IRON, ZINC, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, selenium, iodine
Non-nutrients of Interest
-phytochemicals: beneficial plant chemical thought to have health protective properties (cancer, heart disease, alzheimer's disease, diabetes)
What is energy??
-the capacity to do work
-energy in food measured by the unit kilocalorie (kcal) or Calorie (capital "C")
• the amount of energy (heat) needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree celsius
-lower "cal" = 1 g of water by 1 degree celsius
The energy content of macronutrients
-carb= 4 kcal/gram
-fat= 9 kcal/gram
-protein= 4 kcal/gram
-alcohol= 7 kcal/gram