Lecture 1 Flashcards Preview

Nutitional Science > Lecture 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 1 Deck (26):
0

What is nutrition??

The scientific study of food and how food nourishes our body and influences our health

1

What factors impact food choices??

-availability
-flavor, taste, texture
-routine and habits
-convenience
-cost
-marketing
-self expression
-culture and religion
-health beliefs
-environment: weather, soil condition, technology
-politics: labeling laws, trade

2

What are nutrients??

Chemical substances in food that are NECESSARY/CRITICAL for human growth and function and sustaining life

3

Chemical

Has chemical composition

4

What are the functions of nutrients??

-provide energy for normal physiological function, activity, growth
-promote growth, maintenance and repair body tissues
-involved in physilogical processes: vision, bones, energy production, transportating nutrients, nerve impulses, muscle contraction, immune system etc.

5

What are essential nutrients??

-Nutrients with a specific biological function and without them your health will decline
-your body cannot make them on its own or they make it in insufficient quantities
-you must obtain them through your diet

6

The 6 essential nutrients??

-water
-carbs
-fat (some fatty acids)
-protein (some amino acids)
-vitamins
-minerals

7

What are macronutrients??

-Needed in large quantities- grams
-energy yielding
-carbs, fat, protein
-caveats: alcohol, water

8

What are micronutrients??

-Needed in small quantities- milligrams and micrograms
-not energy yielding
-vitamins and minerals

9

Organic

Contains the element carbon
-ex. Carbs, lipids, protein and vitamins

10

Inorganic

No carbon
- water and minerals

11

Vitamins

-organic, micronutrients
-13 vitamins: A, D, E, K, C, B (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12, folate, panthothenic acid and biotin)

12

Vitamin C

Ascorbic acid

13

Vitamin B2

Riboflavin

14

Vitamin D

Cholecalciferol

15

Examples of Fat soluble Vitamins

A, D, E, K

16

Examples of Water soluble vitamins

B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12, folate, pantothenic acid, biotin) and Vitamin C

17

Fat soluble vitamins

-stored in the body: do not need to consume daily ir weekly
- toxicitycan occur (likely with supplements)
-found in: largely in fat containing foods (veg oils, meat, dairy, nuts)

18

Water soluble vitamins

-not largely stores (excepts B12), excess excreted in urine
-consume daily and weekly
-toxicity via food unlikley
-deficiency can result quickly, esp. In growing conditions

19

Minerals

-Inorganic, micronutrients
-exist as elements already in the simplest chemical form
-not broken down during digestion or destroyed by heat/light
-Minor changes in atomic structure can occur, which can impact absorbability
-may exist as a compound: NaCl

20

Maior minerals

-need >100 mg/d from diet and we need at least 5 g in the body
- CALCIUM, PHOSPHORUS, SODIUM, POTASSIUM, chloride, magnesium, sulfur

21

Trace minerals

-need <5 g of each in the body
-IRON, ZINC, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, selenium, iodine

22

Non-nutrients of Interest

-phytochemicals: beneficial plant chemical thought to have health protective properties (cancer, heart disease, alzheimer's disease, diabetes)

23

What is energy??

-the capacity to do work
-energy in food measured by the unit kilocalorie (kcal) or Calorie (capital "C")
• the amount of energy (heat) needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree celsius

-lower "cal" = 1 g of water by 1 degree celsius

24

The energy content of macronutrients

-carb= 4 kcal/gram
-fat= 9 kcal/gram
-protein= 4 kcal/gram
-alcohol= 7 kcal/gram

25

Cause of deaths that a good health can prevent

-heart disease
-cancer
-stroke
-diabetes mellitus