Lecture 4- Carbs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 4- Carbs Deck (37):


- carbon
- oxygen
- hydrogen
- also called saccharides


Function if carbs

- provide energy
- spare protein
- provide fiber
- provide sweetness


Simple carbs

- disaccharide: common form found in nature


Complex carbs

- 3 or more monosaccharides
- oligosacchrides (3-10 monosaccharides)
- polysaccharide (hundreds of monosacharides)



Glucose: must abundant sugar molecule in our diet; good energy source (not often found alone)
Fructose: sweetest natural sugar; found in fruit, high-fructose corn syrup
Galactose: does not occur alone in foods; binds with glucose to form lactose


Galactose + glucose



Glucose + glucose



Glucose + fructose




-Starch: storage forn of glucose in plants; food source include grains, legumes, amd tubers
-Glycogen: storage form of glucose in animals; stored in liver and muscles
- fiber: forms the support structure of leaves, stems, and plants


Insoluble fiber

- does not dissolve in water
- part of plants cell wall
- not metabolized by bacteria
- contributes bulk to stool
- ex. Cellulose
- good source: whole grains


Health benefits to insoluble fiber

- promote regular BM and decrease constipation
- help prevent hemorrhoids, diverticulitus
• diverticula: bulging pockets in colon
- may lower the risk of colon cancer


Soluble fiber

- dissolves in water, is viscous and gel- forming
- found in plant cells
- bacteria metabolize them easily
Ex. Gums, pectin
- found in oatmeal, beans


Health benefits to soluble fiber

Lowers cholesterol


Total fiber and health benefits

- may improve blood glucose levels in diabetics
• delay nutrient absorption and release of glucose into the blood stream
- high fiber diet may promote weight loss
• food high in complex carbs= low in fat an sugar= lower calories
• fiber an water= bulk, dense food
- delays gastric emptying
- increase satiety


Whole grain

-Bran: fiber(insoluble) , vitamins
-Germ: vit E, healthy fats, protein, fiber, B vit
- endosperm: starch, small anounts of protein, minimal vits and min


Grain Enriched

Add back nutrients that were lost in processing
- refined grains with riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, iron
- not with fiber, vit E, UFA, phytochemicals


Grain fortified

Add ingredients that were not originally in the product
- folate, sterols, omega3 fatty acids, vit D in milk, extra iron


What enzymes break down Carbs

Salivary and pancreatic amylase
- lactase, amylase
Brush border enzymes
- sucrose


Absorptions of carbs

- monosaccharide: glucose, fructose, galactose are absorbed into the entrocyte

- enter capillaries and bloodstram ---> liver

- in liver cells, fructose and glactose ---> glucose


The fate of glucose

- used for energy in liver and travelto other cells for energy production
- stored in liver and muscles as glycogen
- in consumed in excess of energy needs ---> synthesize fatty acids
- used to maintain blood glucose levels to ensure adequate glucose for thr cells to make energy


Carb metabolism

- glycolysis produces pyruvate
- pyruvate in the presence of O2 and with coenzymeA forms acetyl CoA
- acetyl CoA enters citric acid cycle
- these steps reduce coenzymes
- reduced coenzymes transport electrons to the ETC
- by product: ATP, water, CO2, oxidized coenzymes



Loss of an electron



Gain if an electron


Carbs in the body: stored as glycogen

If glucose is not needed for energy it is stored ad glycogen
- storage form of glucose
- used during sleep, fasting, excercise
- made and stored by liver and muscle tissues

- liver ~100g glycogen (400 Kcal) used to maintain BG to provide fuel for brain and RBC
- muscles: ~350g (1400 Kcal) used to meet muscle needs
• is not released into the blood for use


Excess carbs stored as fats

Lipogenesis: making fat from nonfat substances
- mostly occurs in liver cells
- travels to adipose cells for storage


Blood glucose levels

-blood glucose: sugar in blood
- function of blood glucose is ti provide a circulating steady supply of fuel for cells
• immediately available so it can be taken up bu cells and used for energy
• peferred fuel for brain and only fuel for red blood cells
• used by muscles in aerobic excercise


Pancreatic hormonrs that regulate blood glucose levels

- insulin
- glucagon



- cellular uptake of glucose (actuvr transport)
- uptake by liver and muscles to store as glycogen
- anabolic hormone
- secreted by pancreas


Glucagon stimulates liver to...

- convert stored liver glycogen yo glucoose (glycogenesis)
- convert amino acids to glucose (gluconeogenesis)
- catabolic hormone
- secreted by pancreas


Needs of carbs

- the RDA: 130g/day
- AMDR: 45-65% of energy
• 2000 calories= 225-324 g
- AI for fiber:
• 38g/d for 19-50 adult men
• 25g/d for women
- AHA recommends:
• 100 kcal-6 tsp for women
• 150 kcal-9 tsp for men



- inability to regulate blood glucose levels within the normal range
- if blood sugar level is less than 100mg that you are okay!
- if between 100-125 then considered prediabetes
- 126 and over, you have diabetes


Type 1 diabetes

Autoimmune disease: own immune system destroys yhe insulin producing beta cells of pancreas


Type 2 diabetes

Decrease sensitivity or response to insulin


Symptoms and outcome of diabetes

Immediate symptoms
- frequent urination and unusual thirst: BG excreted in urine
- unusual weight loss -BG not entering cells, use pro/fat
- extreme hunger
- type 2: frequent infection and slow healing, blurred vision, numbness in hands and feet
- type 1: fruity odor breath, ketone production

Long term complications:
- damage to large blood vessels
- damage to small blood vessels (eyes: blindness, kidneys: kiney failure)
- amputation: nerve damage and increase blood glucose= microbial growth


Diseases related to hypoglycemia

- low blood sugar (glucose) causing shakiness, sweating, anxiety
- reactive hypoglycemia: pancreas secretes too much insulin after a high- carb meal
- regualr small meals


Glycemic index

- a food's potential to raise blood glucose
- compared with standard amount of glucose or white bread
- increase glycemic index= rapid increase in blood glucose levels
- influenced by carb content, type of carb, the way it i prepared, fat and fiber content
- under 55 is low and over 77 is high
- glycemic load: GI x carbs in a typical portion
- possibly important for people with diabetes but total carb is important


Polysaccharides: starch

Amylose: straight chain
Amylopectin: branched chain
- contain digestable alpha binds