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Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (15):

A healthy diet is...

-adequate: energy, nutrients, and fiber
-moderate: in sweets, fat and salty foods
-balanced/proper proportions: of all foods (F/V vs meat)
-varied: foods from each food group


Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)

A set of guidelines that addresses both nutrient and energy intake, with different values of gender and age


Estimated Average Reuirement (EAR)

Intakes that are sufficient to meet the nutrient needs of 50% of individuals in a gender and life stage group
Ex. RDA for iron is 19 mg/d for woman aged 19-30 yrs

Based on a measurable marker of adequacy (ex.iron, folate)


Recommended Dietary Allowance

-average daily intake that meets needs for 97-98% of healthy people in a given population
-gender and age specific
-RDAs have been set for many micronutrients and protein, carbs


Adequate Intake (AI)

-used when insufficient evidence to set EAR thus RDA for nutrients
-targets the need for additional research
-AI have been set for some vitamins and minerals, water, fiber and some fatty acids


Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)

-highest level of nutrient intake that likely doesnt pose a risk of adverse effects for a given population
-going above UL puts you at risk for toxicity and detrimental health outcomes
Ex. Nerve damage, skin rash, birth defects, death, vomiting, muscle weakness, kidney failure, irregular heart beat, high blood pressure


Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)

-range of intake for every yielding nutrients
• associated with reduced chronic disease
• provides sufficient intake of essential nutrients
-expressed as a % of total Calories
-CHO: 45-65%
-fat: 20-35%
-protein: 10-35%


Dietary Guidelines

-developed by the USDA and the US dept of health and human services
-based on scientific research
-revised every 5 yrs- most recent 2010
-used to guide gov programs and consumer materials
-provide broad overview of a healthy diet for americans over the age if 2


Food and nutrients to increase

-increase fruit and veg intake
-eat a variety of veg- esp dark green, red and orange and beans, peas
-consume at least half of all grains as whole grains
-increase the amount and variety of seafood
-choose foods that contain nutrients of concern in the US
• potassium, dietary fiber, iron, calcium and vitamin D
• the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide


Foods and nutrients to decrease

- decrease sodium to 2300mg and to < 1500mg if >51 yrs old, or any age AA or have HTN, DM, and kidney disease
- <10% of calories from saturated fat
-reduce SoFAS: solid fats, added sugars
-alcohol in moderation- 1/day for women, 2/day for men


FDA food labeling guidelines

-nutrition labeling and education act, 1990
-labeling is mandatory for foods under FDA oversight
• raw fruits and veg, coffe, spices, and fish are not reqiured to have label but are encouraged to have it
- USDA foods are nit required to have a label: meat and poultry products (eggs)


Labeling claims: nutrient claims

-nutrient claims: describe the nutrient content (amount of the nutrient) in a product
-package can claim:
• good source: 10-19% DV
• excellent source: >20% of the DV


Labeling claims: health claims

- health claims: describe the relationship between a food, nutrient or food constituent and disease risk

-allowed when there is a significant scientific agreement for the association, FDA approved
-only FDA approved claim are allowed
-must use a may or might qualifier
-FDA report card: require disclaimers if weaker scientific evidence


Additional health claim criterion

-must be a "good" source of at least one of these: fiber, protein, vitamin A, C, calcium or iron
-no more than 20% DV for fat(13g), sat fat(4g), cholesterol(60mg), and sodium(480mg)


Labeling claims: structure/function claims

-structure/function claims: describe how a nutrient affects a structure or function of the body(no disease can be mentioned)

-not FDA approved, manufacturers are resposible for accuracy
-these claims made with no proof
-ex. Boost immune system, iron builds strong bones, improves memory