what secretes antibodies?
what mediates activation of CD4 helper T cells when encountering an antigen? (naive CD4 t helper cells + antigen =?)
what is the goal of vaccinations?
antibodies preventing an infection & memory
in what adaptive phase do clones die?
what immunity creates resistance but NO memory?
what immunity is an immunization/ giving of Ag’s
what is a transfer of antibodies in plasm and a treatment for immunodeficiency?
what recognizes Ag’s and makes Ab secreting cells?
What needs an APC to recognize Ags?
what recognizes Ags on infected cells and then kills the cell?
cytotoxic T cells
what regulates self-antigens by suppressing & preventing immune responses?
Regulatory T cells
phagocytes include what?
Neutrophils & macrophages
what is the primary function of phagocytes
ingest/destroy microbes; get rive of damaged cells
what are the specialized macrophages and corresponding tissues?
what lineage are DCs from?
myeloid in bone marrow
what are the 4 DC classes?
- langerhans cells
what cells arise from the lymphoid lineage?
what are primary lymphoid organs?
bone marrow & thymus
what are secondary lymphoid organs
spleen, lymph nodes, lymphoid tissues
HEV express _____1_____, that serve as _____2____ for lymphocytes
- adhesion molecules
2. homing receptors
all mast cell granules do what?
- induce local inflammation
- responsible for vascular abnormalities
- inflammation in allergic reactions
mast cell mediates produce and release what?
- growth factors
where are mast cells located & why?
- close to external environment (skin)
- close to blood vessels
why– to regulate vascular permeability & effector - cell recruitment
what are the 3 lipid mediators for mast cells?
- platelet-activating factors
what are the 6 preformed mediators for mast cells?
- chrondroitin sulfates
- antimicrobial peptides
when B/T cells are in the LN, how do they know where do go to?
are macrophages apart of innate & adaptive immunity?
where are macrophages from?
what are they driven by?
bone marrow & M-CSF (monocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor)
what is the embryonic origin & maturation of macrophages?
yolk sac ->stem cell -> mac. precursor -> blood -> tissue
what is the adult origin & maturation of macrophages?
bone marrow ->stem cell-> monocyte precursor -> monoblast -> monocyte -> blood -> tissue = macrophage activated
what do neutrophils mediate & why?
earliest phages of inflammatory reactions b/c they are the first to arrive
neutrophils are stimulated by what?
G-CSF granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
what are the 2 neutrophil granules?
- specific granule
2. azurophil granule
name 3 specific granules
- secretory phospholipase A2
name 5 azurophil granules
- acid hydroplases
Neutrophil + small thing (yeast) = ?
- internalize yeast via phagocytosis
- azurophil granules are released
- ROS is made; the released enzymes kills it
neutrophil + big thing (hyphae) = ?
- cant internaize; release azurolic granules into nucleus
- this = chromatin decondensation
- NETs are released
- NET immobilize it & help kill it
what makes a NET? (neutrophil extracellular trap)
DNA, histones, proteins
what is NETosis?
a cell death-dependent process
- chromatin decondensation
- nuclear membrane disintegration
what do mast cells, basophils, & eosinophils have in common?
- innate & adaptive
- protect against helminthes & allergic reactions
- common cytoplasmic granules
what granules do mast cells have? what is the staining?
histamine – purple w/ giemsa
what is the blood basophil stain?
blue w/ giemsa
what is the eosinophil stain & granules?
Red – acidic dye eosin
filled with basic proteins