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Flashcards in Lecture #1 Deck (49):
1

How many locations within North America are at risk of hazards?

Every location is at risk of at least 1 hazard
-Hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, draught (everyone)

2

Examples of Non-natural disasters?

-Nuclear meltdown
-Toxic gas release
-Oil Spill
-O3 depletion
-Acid rain
-Infrastructure failures

3

What are the 3 main processes in which natural hazards can arise?

1. Internal forces within the earth (driven by internal energy; plate tectonics)
2. External Forces on earth surface (driven by sun energy; any weather hazard)
3. Gravitational Attraction (driven by force of gravity; downslope movement)

4

Hazard definition

A process that poses a potential threat to people or the environment

5

Risk definition

the probability of an event occurring x impact on people or the environment

6

Disaster definition

A brief event that causes great property damage of loss of life

7

Catastrophe definition

A massive disatster

8

What differentiates a hazard from a catastrophe?

It's based on the size of the area affected

9

Which hazards are more likely to be more catastrophic or less?

More: tsunami, earthquake hurricanes
Less: Landslide, wildfires, tornado

10

What is the magnitude frequency concept?

There is an inverse relationship between magnitude and frequency

11

What is the impact of a hazard dependant on?

Magnitude + Frequency
-also to a lesser extent geology, population density, land use

12

What is a relatively safe place to be in NA?

The great lakes region

13

Which cycles created and modified earths surface?

the geologic cycles
-tectonic cycle
-rock cycle
-hydrologic cycle

14

What does the tectonic cycle involve?

Creation, movement and destruction of plates

15

How many tectonic plates are there?

7 big ones
7 little ones

16

Which process drives the tectonic cycle?

Earth internal energy

17

What is the Asthenosphere?

The upper mantle which is composed of hot magma with some flow

18

What is the Lithosphere?

Thin and brittle crust

19

What are the 2 different kinds of crust?

-Oceanic (dense)
-Continental (thin)

20

What are the 3 types of plate boundaries?

-Convergent
-Divergent
Transform

21

What do transform boundaries create?

Transform faults
(san Andreas)

22

What are hotspots?

Areas found away from plate boundaries where magma rises up from the mantle
-they're random

23

What geological feature is indicative of a hot spot?

When magma erupts from the surface to form volcanoes
-Hawaiian islands

24

How do plume move?

They don't move, but the plate moving over top causes the structure to move

25

What are the 3 types of rock produced yet eh rock cycle?

-Igneous (came from ancient volcano)
-Sedimentary (weathering + erosion)
-Metamorphic (heat+ melting to form a new rock)

26

Definition of the Hydrologic cycle

The movement and exchange pod water around the land atmosphere and oceans by changes in state

27

What drives the hydrologic cycle?

Solar energy drives the movement of water

28

What is the Residence time?

How long a molecule stays in the atmosphere

29

What are the 5 major course themes?

1. Hazards can be understood through scientific investigation
2. Need to understand hazards to reduce risk
3. Hazards are linked to each other and the environment
4. Population + economic growth are increasing the risk of hazards
5. Consequences of hazards can be reduced

30

Why can understanding a hazard be beneficial?

If we know how it works we can know where it will occur and know how to minimize effects and predict future events

31

When do natural processes become hazardous?

When they distrust human activity or the environment

32

What is the best solution against natural processes, since we can't control them?

Mitigate loss by preparation

33

Prediciton definition

A specific time, date, location and magnitude of the event

34

Forcast definition

A range or probability for the event (more general)
-some can be predicted and forecasted

35

What is risk?

the probability of the event x consequences

36

Consequences definition

Damage to people , property, the environment and the economy

37

What is the acceptable risk?

The amount of risk that an individual or society is willing to take

38

How is the risk of hazards increasing?

-more people living closer to hazard areas

39

Which 2 countries account for 1/3 of earth population?

India and China

40

Why are hazards becoming more expensive?

- More neighbourhoods are in more unusual places which are closer to hazard areas and more expensive to rebuild

41

Economic losses are higher in which countries?

developed countries
-deaths are higher in developing countries

42

Direct disaster effects?

Death, injury, property damage displacement of people
-lots of media attention

43

Indirect disaster effects?

Crop failures, starvation emotional distress, loss of employment
-effects are lingering
-less media attention

44

What are reactive approaches to hazards?

These involve recovery, search and rescue, providing emergency food water and shelter, rebuilding

45

What are proactive approaches to hazards?

-good land use planning
- strong building codes
-insurance
-Evacuation planning
-Artificial controls (flood walls)

46

Which is a better approach, proactive of reactive?

Proactive

47

What are Natural Service Functions?

Natural events provide important benefits

48

What does climate change have to do with hazards?

Frequency of some natural processes will increase

49

Midterm Question: Which mountain chain is the site of a continent collision?

The Himalayan Mountains