Flashcards in Lecture # 9 -Technological Hazards Deck (43):
What are some extreme tech hazards?
What are some rare tech hazards?
What are some more common tech hazards?
What are cumulative effects?
These are conditions that worsen slowly overtime as exposure to a concentration increases
-eventually a threshold will be reached
What is the risk for large-scale structures (buildings bridges dams)
Risk is defined as the probability of failure during the lifetime of the structure
What is the risk associated with transportation vehicles?
Risk is the probability of death or injury per km travelled
What is the risk associated with industries?
Risk is the probability of death or injury per person per number of hours exposed
Characteristics of Radon
-Froms from the decay of uranium in rock and soil
- Damages lungs
-it is odourless, colourless and tasteless, making it hard to detect
-Can travel easily through non-saturated soils and can seep through buildings and homes
What are the most common GMO food crops
-modified to increase yeilds, drought resistant and incorporate pesticides into them
What do scientists currently believe now?
Benefits outweigh the risks
-can help a lot in developing countries
In what way can you be exposed to radiation?
Inhaling and ingestion
-impact can be direct or indirect
Where do you fin =d most nuclear reactors?
In the eastern half of the continent and located near water sources
Why is nuclear considered a clean source of energy?
It doesn't emit GHG and can cause climate change
What is a nuclear meltdown?
Informal term for an accident that results in damage from overheating
how does nuclear meltdown occur?
When the heat generated by a nuclear reactor exceeds heat removed by the cooling systems
-fuel rods (made from uranium) turn to liquid and the walls of the reactor core could melt from extreme heat
Characteristics of the 3 Mile Ireland Nuclear accident
March 28th, 1979
-partial meltdown caused by a failure of a valve that controlled cool water entering the reactor core
-worst accident in US history
Characteristics of the Chernobyl nuclear accident
April 26th 1986
-Caused from a flawed design, operator error and disregard of safety regulations
-Caused immediate deaths and longterm health problems
-Their building codes weren't up to the North American Standard
Why did nuclear energy development stop?
Combined results of the accidents caused a halt. but now because of the GHG's we are looking into it more as a cleaner alternative
-Hit and iceberg and sank on April 15th 1912
-thought to be unsinkable, and built with the best technology at the time
-1517 people died because of the lack of safety boats
-Sank 37 seconds after it hit
-instead of turning to avoid the ice burg, it would have been better to hit it straight on
Where do most oil spill occur?
In marine environments but can also occur on land with pipeline breaks
-cleanups can take months to complete
Why are oil spills bad for animals?
oil penetrates feathers and fur, which reduces their ability to insulate themselves, leaving them more vulnerable to the elements and environment
Characteristics of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill
caused by an oil striking a rocky reef
March 24th 1989
75 million litres or oil spilled
-remoteness of the spill made it hard to clean up
Characteristics of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill
Caused by an oil rig that exploded in the Gulf of Mexico
April 20th 2010
The explosion was caused by methane gas that was release and rose up the pipe and killed 11 people
Released 11 million litres of oil everyday for 5 months
BP was to blame because they made lots of cost cutting measures on safety regulations.
What can contaminate ground water?
through bacteria, fertilizer, manure, toxic heavy metals, mining operation, tailing ponds
What are some infrastructure failures?
Highway bridges in Mississippi collapsed
Minneapolis bridge collapsed (too much weight)
Tacoma Bridge Collapsed ( Suspension bridge that didnt account for hole to allow wind to go through)
-issue in north America because off the structures are getting older
What are the 2 space related accidents?
1. The Challenger
Characteristics of the Challenger space mission
Exploded 73 seconds after lift off
Jan 28th 1986
7 people died
Faulty O ring was the cause and failed to seal a joint leading to the release of a hot gas that led to the failure of the rocket booster
Characteristics of the Columbia space mission
Exploded 16 days into space
Feb 1st 2003
Piece of insulation broke off form the external tank which struck the wing and damaged the system that protects the wind from intense heat produced by atmospheric gases
What is social unrest?
harm that one society of part of a society may to too another through violence
How people have died form war?
150 million in the last 100 years
What are dubious weapons?
Weapons that cause indiscriminate destruction and harm to civilians and the environment
-destruction of dams
What dubious weapon was used in a major attack int he US
Fire was used in the 9/11 incident
What is Napalm
thickening agent mixed with gasoline for the use of bombs
-killed over 1 million people in Nam
-causes burns and asphyxiation
What is agent orange?
-used to clear jungles and deprive people of their livelihoods
-forests were targeted but it affected people too
-banned in the 70's
What are some post-war hazards?
Unexploded bombs and mines
International trade disrupted
What is geographic violence?
Violence during warfare can also target places and living spaces
-manifested in the elimination habitats, landscapes and settlements
Use of weapons on human settlements
What is ecocide?
destruction of a local environment or local ecosystem,
What is War on Culture?
describes the violence directed at specific buildings and institutions due to their historic and symbolic significance
-part of eradicating peoples heritage
-outlawing language, religion and customs through snored assimilation
What is demographic violence?
group of people may be targeted for violence based on racial, religious, political or ethnic groups
Ex: naziz and jews, Tutsis and Hutus
Coventry england air raid
overwhelmed cvivl defences and but a strain on local health services
568 people killed and destroyed the city core
Tokyo Japan air raid
fire destroyed a lot of tokyo
130 000 people and 1 million people homeless