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1

How many hectares are in use in the uk for agriculture production?

18 million hectares

2

What is soil texture?

% of sand, silt and loam

3

Name two reasons soil texture is important.

Yield potential
Pest and disease risks
Cultivation choice
Risks of water lodging
Risks of drought
Cropping choices

4

Two advantages of clay soils

Good nutrient retention
Good water retention

5

Two negatives of clay soils

More energy to work
Risk of water lodging

6

Two advantages of sandy soils

Relatively easy to work
Low risk of water lodging

7

Two negatives of sandy soils

High risk of wind erosion
Low nutrient holding capacity

8

Name two properties of Loam soils

Mixture of properties between sand and clay
Moderate water holding capacity
Moderate nutrient holding capacity
Moderate workability

9

Why is peat soil a dark appearance?

High levels of organic matter

10

What are the properties of peat soil?

Very fertile
Easy to work
Wide range of crops

11

What are the three factors of land classifications?

Typography
Flooding risk
Ability to cultivate

12

What are the two characteristics of Grade 1?

Allows an extensive range of crops
High yield and quality

13

What quality if grade 1?

Extremely good quality

14

What is the quality of grade two?

Very high quality

15

What are the characteristics of grade two?

Capable of high yields
Wide angle of agriculture and horticulture crops

16

What quality is grade three?

Moderate quality

17

What are the characteristics of grade three?

Yield usually lower and variable
Limited cropping choice

18

What quality is grade four?

Very poor quality

19

What are the characteristics of grade four?

Severe limitations
Restricted to rough grazing

20

What characteristics are grade six and seven?

Very severe and extremely severe limitations

21

What is organic matter?

Dead and decaying plant of animal material

22

Name two types of organic matter

Crop debris
Green manures
Farmyard manure
Sewage sludge

23

Why is organic matter important?

Soil structure
Reduces compaction risk
Nutrient retention
Water retention

24

Name three ways of incorporating organic matter

Grass keys
Straw incorporation
Cover crops

25

Name two things pore spaces enables for soil

Enables roots to grow
Availability of oxygen and water
Drainage
Soil organisms

26

What is compaction?

When pore spaces reach below optimum level causing an increase in bulk density of the soil

27

What two consequences come from compaction

Restricted root growth
Water logging

28

Name two consequences of soil erosion

Soil loss
Sedimentation of rivers
Eutrophication of nutrients and pesticides

29

Name three ways of improving soil structures

Rotations
Increase organic matter
Use cover crops
Grass leys
Reduce compaction
Return crop residue

30

Name three ways to reduce compaction

Low ground pressure tyres
Monitor soil profiles
Drainage
Subsoiler
Cultivations