Lecture 2- Winter wheat Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2- Winter wheat Deck (32)
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1

How do you identify wheat?

Small hairy auricles

2

How do you identify barley?

Large overlapping hairless auricles

3

How do you identify oil seed oats?

No auricles

4

What is most wheat used for in the uk?

Livestock feed

5

What is the average UK yield for winter wheat?

8.5T/ha

6

What is the average yield for first wheat following a break crop?

9-10t/ha

7

What is the average yield for second wheat, wheat following wheat?

8-9t/ha (1t/ha less)

8

Traditionally how many tonnes of winter wheat are exported by the UK each year?

3-4 million tonnes

9

Where are the main destinations for the UK for exporting winter wheat?

Spain (20-30%)
Algeria
Morocco
Portugal
Egypt

10

Why is it advisable to avoid drilling too early? (Early September)
4 reasons

All weeds germinate in crop (no time for stale seed beds)
Very high levels of fungal disease
High numbers of aphids
Higher risk of lodging in spring

11

What are 3 examples of fungal disease in winter wheat?

Take-all
Eyespot
Mildew

12

When is the drilling date for first wheat?

Mid-late September

13

When is the drilling date for second wheat crops?

Mid October due to higher risk

14

When is black grass a problem during the year?

Late October (needs good soil management)

15

What is the calculation for seed rate?

Thousand grain weight (g) x target plant population (m2)
—————————————————————
Expected plant establishment (%)

16

What is systematic fungicides?

Some early control of foliar diseases

17

What is systematic insecticides?

Protect against early insect damage (e.g. Aphids)

18

What is the desired drilling depth for winter wheat?

3-5cm

19

In what circumstance would you require 3cm soil coverage over a winter wheat seed?

If using a pre-emergence herbicide

20

In what circumstance would you need 5cm drilling depth for winter wheat?


Why?

If the top soil is very dry and drilling early

To allow access to moisture

21

How long do you have to apply pre-emergence herbicide after drilling/rolling?

Within 48hrs

22

What are pre-emergence herbicides?

What do they target?

Selective herbicides

Targets weeds when small during the seedling stage

23

When's best to use pre-emergence herbicides for winter wheat?

Mid to late autumn

24

What's the 3 problems with waiting until weeds are developed when using herbicides?

Harder to kill
Yield already lost
May have produced seeds

25

What conditions lead to high risk of slug damage to crops?
(5 answers)

Wet weather
Clay soils
Following oil seed rape
High trash content on soil bed
Cloddy soil

26

How to you break up clods and consolidate seed beds?

Cambridge roller

27

At what growth stage are slugs an issue?

High risk before growth stage 20s (GS20s)

28

What does BYDV stand for?

Barley yellow dwarf virus

29

What crops does barley yellow dwarf virus attack?

Deals such as barley, wheat and oats

30

How do you control barley yellow dwarf virus?
2 answers

Use systematic insecticide seed treatment
Don't drill too early