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"Scientist" ?

Comes from "knowledge". But prior to 1800's, "Natural Philosophers" who concerned themselves with the truth and wisdom IN NATURE. No politics, morals, experiments.



Science is preordained, we only need to find it. It's inevitable that reason (us, today) triumphs or irrationalism.


Introduce me to Babylon

~1360's, was part of Mesopotania.
-Very literate
-strict laws (Stellae, and BIRTH OF CIVIL CODE).
-Had centres for learning math, science.

Above all, they were excellent record keepers (using cuneiforms).


Babylonian Astronomy?

-Known for their ability to predict.
-Look up tables + math = useful for crop timings, festivals, seasons, tides.

Interested in how the heavenly bodies changed Earth (e.g. Moon and tides)
-> but no physical model of heavens.


Babylonian Numbers

Base 60 -> many factors, good when no decimals.
-> important for trade
-> 30 day moon cycle, 12 zodiacs, helps agriculture
-> we keep our B60 time

No 0, just ' ' or '//'



Focused on Astronomy, Agriculture.
->floods drought harvest plant
Created our calendar
->30 day months, 5 month-less party days
No systematic method or physical
->records and practical skills, no theory
->many "rule of thumb" skills
->no how/why of the world
->God, Religion? no link to their knowledge


Why is Greece different?

The how and why, the value research
->who cares if it isn't practical


Who is the "father of science" and why?

Thales of Miletus, for differentiating appearance and reality
->must use speculation to see what they are
->identify the cause, the underlying knowledge


What is Thales' core belief? How do we know what he believed?

All is water.
->e.g. water, fog, it's all one state
->can transition (gold melts, wood burns)

We have no records, only what Aristotle said he did.
->While Aristotle's interpretation is literally "you are all water", Thales might have been figurative


What do we know of Thales' character?

Two stories (who knows if true) showing arrogance
->"so much knowledge but you're not rich"
-> predicts olive boon and gets rich
->Falls into well
->seen as out to lunch, values theoretical even at detriment of practicality