Flashcards in Lecture 12 - Newtonianism Deck (7)
Newton in Europe
In England, Newton was a Rockstar
->sent by God, he'd seen God's mind
But EU, Descartes & M.P. prevailed
->Europe's Einstein, he just had it right!
->also a good methodologist
Most hate because Occult forces
->he just feigned no hypothesies
->indirect attack on Descartes - I know I can't prove it, how do you know about the micro screws?
->Descartes' celestial bodies (vortices) could never align with Kepler
Slowly builds support:
->Voltaire publishes on him
->"World blind before Kepler, but Newton had 2 eyes"
->slowly became popular - you need people to champion your beliefs for you for them to spread
People started using Newtonianism everywhere!
->Algoratti's "Newton for Ladies"
->try to make framework for morality, politics...
->banned by Church, science can't do that!
Thought Newtonianism could do anything, but it can be hard to establish initial conditions
->the "Three Body Problem"
Perihelion of Mercury couldn't be explained, but Moon and Tides could.
->cut through 100's of problems
Unknown G in Uni Grav
->finally Cavendish at Cambridge finds it
->Herschel builds giant 20ft one, finds Uranus
->and theoretically finds Neptune after noticing anomaly in orbig
Newtonian Chemistry - Priestley
->interested in pneumatic chemistry (air)
->air is a single substance
->but could be mixed, e.g. throw dust into i
->heretic, opponent of the crown
1)Fixed (No or CO2, he eventually differentiated them)
2) Dephlogisticated air (O2)
Saw their effects on plants, fire, calcification
->assume lungs put phlogiston into air
->flames burning with us
->plants feed on phlogiston
Denied O2 theory
Newtonian Chemistry - Lavoisier
->and his cropped wife who did translations, ideas
->promoted self as Newtonian chemist
Problems with Phlogiston:
->weights of air?
->adding phlogiston might decrease metal's weight
->metals are compounds in phlogiston theory, but heating changes weights?
Lavoisier reformed chemistry
->air is a mix, can be isolated
->renamed many things so common language
->e.g. "element" anything you can't subdivide
->chalk, light, caloric (heat)
->tentative because someone might break them someday
->dephlogisticated into oxygen
->oxygen = "acid former", though he knew about HCl
Neither O2 or Phlog were established correct.
Heating iron ore -> iron metal
->and iron ore is heavier
->iron ore is element, iron is compound of phlogistan and iron element
->phlogistan has metallic properties, gives them
->"chemical affinity" today
->iron is element, since heating the iron ore releases oxygen, purifying it, making it lighter!
->but can't explain universal similarity between metals
Lavoisier emphasized exact measurements, since Phlogistan couldn't explain loss of weight.
->he pushed CoM as Newtonian way, even though Newton never talked about the CoM
Ancients knew static electricity
->usually artificial magnets, no explanation
->Thales though it was neat
->by 1600, William Gilbert coins "electricity", shows it's not like magnetism (but working with static)
19th C, start with electrostatics
->electrical charges in motion
The Voltaic Pile (primitive battery)
->Galvani thought living matter was source of electricity
->Volta disproved with his pile
->copper/zinc, brine sponge sandwich
->replaced Leyden jar
->discharge over time, gives current
->current lets you study circuits!
->by being similar to Neweton, accepted without proof
->just description of phenomena
->by 1800, description without explanation accepted