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Recall St. Benedict of Nursia ?

What is it to be a monk, how to run a monastery... (lec 6)

But there are 3 that predate him!


St. Augustine

Found Mother's Christian faith unconvincing
->simplistic, unpersuasive

Found St. Ambrose's brand of Christianity convincing
->emphasize allegory
->persuasive rhetoric
->a very intellectual religion

Aug needed deep intellect, but got that most don't

Sets down theological foundations of most sects
->also deep appreciation from time as non-Christian

The Confessions:
->autobiog, 2 times he had true revelations
->1 comes from reading Plato (deep appreciation)

A Neo-Platist
- struggle to mesh Plato & Christianity
->mashups of Timaeus and Trinity



->Academia got nothing to do with Church
Greek is "authorised Paganism"
->don't touch it
->minority opinion


St. Justin

Thought Greek Philosophers given a revelation
->knowledge is a divine revelation
->scientists are unknown Christians
Jesus wasn't even born yet, but they were still having revelations
->hey, knowledge is knowledge


The Literal Interpretation of Genesis - St. Augustine

1) Be Logical and Rational
2) Preserve the text, don't alter it
3) Consistent with knowledge of Natural World

e.g days can't exist before Sun
->God probably created world in 6 stages
But very few people read literally
-> it says Mustard seeds are the smallest


Why should Religion care about N.P.?

Still handy for sailing, crops
->when is Easter or other holidays?
Spreading religion
->I won't believe anything you say if you're stupid


Latin Translation Movement

9th C, Charlemagne (King of France) brings stability
->edict: all monestaries open schools
->public accesible areas for higher learning
->a renaissance

->fewer Barb Raids
->population boom b/c/ better weather, farming innovations (water wheel, rotations) = more food
->more urbanization - better labour division = more leisure time
->stable society + food for scientists

->more schools
->significant Christians, Muslims in Spain
->take Muslim area + Arabic texts
-why spain?
->part of Muslim world for long time
->many translated texts and Latin study groups
A centre for T. Movement - people interested in libraries, knowledge already went to spain

->populated by Greeks with greek texts
->wanted originals

Unlike Arabic:
->extreme focus on Math, Logic, N.P.
->intellectual Christians, need for all those new schools


Birth of the Medieval University?

From those Cathedral Schools and all the books!
->scholarly community, study everything
->scholarly communities emerged
->start of dialectical culture, publish commentary

Pull together to understand Greek texts
->debate what Aristotle was talking about
->Platonic system, lively debate

Focused on the seven liberal arts
-Trivium: Rhetoric, Grammar, Logic
-Quadrivium: Music, Arithmetic, N.P, Astronomy
You needed the 7 to participate in Roman civil life
->early Unis were just scholarly Guilds

Infrasturcture? Owned nothing
->rented buildings and books
->move around, attract students
->would set up in town, bringing tons of $$$

-upper class, who could pay
-enter at 14, 15
->study until you can get a job (e.g. clerk)
->most don't get full degrees
-Bachelor's = 3-4 yeras
->could get then Masters, so you can teach
->teach anywhere
-Master of Theology = 15 - 20 years
->unmarried, crazy dedicated

Classes more structured, participatory



By 13th C, most curricula was just Aristotle
->He talked about every topic, v. comprehensive
->clear method for studying natural world

Is a METHOD of studying basically anything
-master begins wiht Question
->reads text, gives an analysis
->asks "whether... "
->one student defends each
-then professor gives answer
Lets you ask anything
->even heretical
->was like a sport

Treaties often written like this
->Augustin questioned Genesis
->let you sort treatises on what they discussed

People became good at asking questions
->taught to find and pin them down


Condemnation of 1277

Church didn't like Aristotelian method
->Aristotle Pagan, believed world eternal, prime matter
->but you couldn't shut down a Uni
->since they were informal

Edict passed with "authority of Pope"
->condemns 219 phil propositions
->on threat of excommunication
->anything limiting God's power
->asking if GOD can create a vacuum? Blasphemy!
->celestial bodies control us, or Human Free Will?
->recall, free will is God's greatest gift! Blasphemy!

Pope John 21 was a theologian, didn't want Papal
->people complaining, he doesn't wanna deal
->already 2 innefective past bans
->delegates task to people complaining
->when pope dies, they ban the texts
->really just affects Paris, though Oxford too later

So God an do anything (Archbishop of Paris said so)
->good for development of science
->God can do anything so let's talk about // worlds, vacuums
->did Jesus die for their sins too? Or own Jesus?
->made questions people would never have asked
->motion, kinetics, space, time?
->will be traced to Galileo's New Sciences