Lecture 1 - Intro To Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 1 - Intro To Pathology Deck (29):
1

Where and when
-looking at number affected
-disease occurrence and spread
--epidemic = more cases than normal for that area
--pandemic = when it crosses into different countries

Epidemiology

2

Underlying cause
-infectious, idiopathic, iatrogenic

Etiology

3

Name that condition..what caused it?
-Formal name used to describe a patient's disease.
-Based on signs, symptoms, and the results of diagnostic tests.
-Requires knowledge of different diseases and their characteristics.
-important for management and prognosis

Diagnosis

4

Source of disease is medical professional or medical procedure; in course of treatment, we caused it

Iatrogenic

5

Unknown cause or source

Idiopathic

6

Infections disease that is acquired from a hospital-type setting

Nosocomial

7

The disease process; process and mechanism of 'how this is happening'

Pathogenesis

8

Study of disease, especially changes in cells/tissues/organs that cause or are caused by disease

Pathology

9

Functional change that accompany a particular syndrome or disease

Pathophysiology

10

Term used to describe what the doctor measure/sees/finds in the patient

Sign

11

Term used to describe what the patient tells the doctor is happening; "I'be been vomiting for 3 days"

Symptom

12

Relatively rapid onset and short duration; not necessarily severe

Acute

13

Disease that is lasting for a long duration

Chronic

14

What is the approximate timing for a disease to be labeled chronic?

3 months or more

15

How many chronic diseases are preventable?

7/10

16

Ill defined time between acute and chronic

Subacute

17

Extrinsic factors

-Biological agents: microorganisms and parasites
-Chemical agents: any chemical that can cause harm
-Physical agents: mechanical injury, temperature extremes, electricity, radiation
-Nutritional imbalances: excesses or deficiencies

18

Intrinsic factors

-Genetic factors: inherited gene or chromosomal mutations (ex: Down's Syndrome = Trisomy 21)
-Congenital factors: defects in embryological development
-Immunological factors: immune deficiency, misdirection, or autoimmunity
-Psychological factors: anxiety, strong or persistent psychological stress

19

Lag phase of disease; "silent" phase; few signs/symptoms

Latency

20

Phase of disease that presents as flu-like symptoms; hard to figure out what is causing it

Prodrome

21

Classical symptoms phase where you will do a bilirubin test

Clinical symptoms

22

Top chronic disease killers of Americans in 2014

1) Heart disease
2) Cancer
3) Stroke
4) Type DM
5) Obesity

23

Percentage of total patients that die from heart disease and/or cancer

46% (almost 50%)

24

Airborne pollutants, contaminants in food/water, human waste products, heavy metals, fire.
These are examples of what?

Chemical agents of Extrinsic factors

25

Electromagnetic radiation, vibration, heat stress, mechanical force.
These are examples of what?

Physical agents of Extrinsic factors

26

Bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans.
These are examples of what?

Biological agents of Extrinsic factors

27

A 36-year-old woman complains to her healthcare provider of shortness of breath. This is an example of what?

A symptom

28

The three categories of endogenous causes of disease are what?

Metabolic
Immunologic
Vascular

29

Which are currently the three leading causes of death in the US?

Heart disease
Cancer
Stroke