Lecture 2 - Epidemiology Primer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2 - Epidemiology Primer Deck (45):
1

Study of factors affecting occurrence of chronic and infectious disease

Epidemiology

2

What is the transfer from mother to fetus?

Vertical (could also be congenital)

3

Value most impacted by the prevalence of a disease in a population

Positive predictive value

4

Formula used to calculate the sensitivity of an assay

TP/(TP+FN)

5

Formula used to calculate the specificity of an assay

TN/(TN+FP)

6

Formula used to calculate the positive predictive value of an assay

TP/(TP+FP)

7

Formula used to calculate the negative predictive value of an assay

TN/(TN+FN)

8

Rate of infection disease is calculated by what equation?

Actual cases (people who actually have the disease)/Potential cases (people at risk)

9

Direct and Indirect are what forms of transmission of infectious diseases?

Horizontal

10

In utero, during birth, colostrum, and suckled milk are what forms of transmission of infectious diseases?

Vertical

11

What's the difference between mortality and morbidity?

Mortality = death
Morbidity = illness

12

Disease that has a relatively stable and expected incidence and prevalence within a geographic area (and population)

Endemic

13

An abrupt and unexpected increase in the incidence of disease over endemic rates

Epidemic

14

Spread of disease beyond continental boundaries

Pandemic

15

Number of new cases of an infectious disease that occurs within a defined population over a defined period of time

Incidence

16

Number of active cases at any given time (total)

Prevalence

17

What happens to incidence and prevalence if: new effective treatment is initiated

Incidence: stays same
Prevalence: decreases

18

What happens to incidence and prevalence if: new effective vaccine gains widespread use

Incidence: decreases
Prevalence: decreases

19

What happens to incidence and prevalence if: number of deaths from the condition declines

Incidence: stays same
Prevalence: increases

20

What happens to incidence and prevalence if: recovery is more rapid than it was 1 year ago

Incidence: stays same
Prevalence: decreases

21

What type of study asks "What's happening?" And collects data from a population to assess frequency of disease (and risk factors) at a particular point in time?

Cross-sectional study

22

What does the cross-sectional study measure?

Disease prevalence

23

What type of study asks, "What happened?" And compares a group of people with the disease (cases) to a group without disease (controls) in order to look for prior exposure or risk factors?

Case-control study

24

What does the case-control study measure?

Odds ratio
-starts with disease
-proceeds from effect to cause

25

What type of study asks, "who gets it?" And compares a group with a given exposure or risk factor to a group without such exposure to look to see if exposure affects the likelihood of the disease?

Cohort study

26

What does the cohort study measure?

Relative risk
-starts with exposure
-proceeds from cause to effect

27

Sensitivity is about what?

The disease

28

Positive predictive values are about what?

The test

29

Likelihood that a sick person tests positive (TP)

Sensitivity

30

Likelihood a non-sick person tests negative (TN)

Specificity

31

Likelihood that a positive test is found only in sick people (P's)

Positive predictive value

32

Likelihood that a negative test is found only in non-sick people (N's)

Negative predictive value

33

Diseased people with a positive test

Sensitivity (needs treatment)

34

Nondiseased people with a negative test

Specificity

35

Positive test results in diseased people

Positive predictive value

36

Negative test results in nondiseased people

Negative predictive value

37

TP/(TP+FN)

Sensitivity

38

TN/(TN+FP)

Specificity

39

TP/(TP+FP)

Positive predictive value

40

TN/(TN+FN)

Negative predictive value

41

What does prevalence of disease affect?

Only things with a positive

42

What does prevalence impact?

PPV but doesn't affect the others

43

What does high prevalence do to the PPV?

Improves PPV

44

What does low prevalence do to PPV?

Harms PPV

45

Positive screening tests are best suited for what patients?

Patients suspected of having the condition of interest