Lecture 1: Primer To Immunology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 1: Primer To Immunology Deck (24):
1

Extracellular bacteria cause disease by 2 principal pathogenic mechanisms. What are they?

1) bacteria induce inflammation which results in tissue destruction at the site of infection
2) Bacteria produce toxins with pathologic effects -> endotoxins and exotoxins

2

Extracellular bacteria produce toxins with pathologic effects. ____________ are components of bacterial cell walls and ____________ are actively secreted by the bacteria.

Endotoxins; exotoxins

3

How is tissue damage caused by intracellular bacteria?

The tissue damage is caused by the host response - inflammation rather than by bacterial factors

4

Classic examples of host response-mediated pathogensis are seen in _______________

Tuberculosis

- Intracellular!

5

What 4 cell types mediate intracellular pathogens?

CTLs
NK cells
T cells
Macrophages

6

What mediates extracellular pathogens?

Abs
Complement
Neutrophils

7

LPS is characteristic of what type of bacteria?

Gram negative

8

A thick peptidoglycan cell wall is characteristic of what type of bacteria?

Gram positive

9

Which of the following does not apply to the innate immune system?
A) Absence of specificity
B) Activation by a stimulus
C) Involvement of multiple cell types
D) A memory component

D) A memory component

- Innate immunity has none of the Ag specificity exhibited by acquired immunity. It is activated by such stimuli as the invasion of the foreign particles into the body.

10

Which of the following is the major function of the lymphoid system?
A) Innate immunity
B) Inflammation
C) Phagocytosis
D) Acquired Immunity
E) None of the above

D) Acquired immunity

- The major function of the lymphoid system is the recognition of foreign Ag by lymphocytes, which leads to the acquired immune response

11

What is the major property of immunologic adjuvants?
A) They reduce the toxicity of the immunogenicity
B) They enhance the immunogenicity of happens
C) They enhance hematopoiesis
D) They enhance the immune response against the immunogenicity
E) They enhance immunologic cross-reactivity

D) They enhance the immune response against immunogenicity

12

What is an immunologic adjuvant?

A substance that when mixed with an immunogen, enhances the immune response against that immunogen

13

Does an immunologic adjuvant enhance cross-reactivity or hematopoiesis?

No

14

Does an immunologic adjuvant enhance the immune response against a hapten?

No

15

How does an immunologic adjuvant change the possible toxicity of an immunogen?

It doesnt! It has no relevance to possible toxicity of an immunogen and only enhances the immune response against the immunogen

16

Can haptens stimulate secondary Ab responses without carriers?

No!

17

Can haptens interact with specific Abs even if the hapten is monovalent?

Yes!

18

Can haptens react with specific Abs when homologous carriers are not employed?

Yes!

19

What do haptens require to be immunogenic?

Carrier molecules

20

Which of he following apply uniquely to secondary lymphoid organs?
A) Presence of precursor B and T cells
B) Circulation of lymphocytes
C) Terminal differentiation
D) Cellular proliferation
E) All of the above

C) Terminal differentiation

21

How is protection against smallpox provided by prior infection with cowpox an example of Ag cross-reactivity?

Immunization with cowpox leads to the production of Abs capable of reacting with smallpox because the 2 viruses share several identical or structurally similar determinants

22

What is the main requirement for immunogenicity?

The substance must be foreign to the immunized individual

23

At what age does he Ab-mediated immunity conferred from mother to fetus begin waning off?

At 6 months old

24

What are 2 major warning signs of primary immunodeficiency?

Ear and sinus infections