Lecture 2: Intro To Immunology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2: Intro To Immunology Deck (75):
1

What cell type secrete TNF?

Macrophages and T cells

2

What effect does TNF have?

Activation of endothelial cells and neutrophils


Fever

Synthesis of APPs

3

What cell types secrete IL-1?

Macrophages and endothelial cells

4

What effect does IL-1 have?

Activation of endothelial cells

Fever

Synthesis of APPs

5

What cell types secrete chemokines?

Macrophages

Endothelial cells

T lymphocytes

Platelets

6

What effect does IL-12 have?

IFN-gamma synthesis in NK and T cells

Th1 cell differentiation

7

What effect do chemokines have?

Chemotaxis and activation of leukocytes

8

What cell types secrete IFN-gamma?

NK cells

T lymphocytes

9

What effect does IFN-gamma have?

Activation of macrophages


**The only cytokine that macrophages dont secrete**

10

What cell types secrete type I IFN's (IFN-alpha and beta)?

IFN-alpha = macrophages

IFN-beta = fibroblasts

11

What effect do type I IFN's (IFN-alpha, beta) have?

Increased class I MHC expression inn all cells

NK cell activation

12

What cell types secrete IL-10?

Macrophages and T cells (Th2)

13

What effect does IL-10 have?

Inhibition of IL-12 production and reduced expression of costimulators and class II MHC molecules

14

What cell types secrete IL-6?

Macrophages, endothelial cells and T cells

15

What effect does IL-6 have?

Synthesis of APPs!

Proliferation of B cells

16

What cell types secrete IL-15?

Macrophages

17

What effect does IL-15 have?

Proliferation of NK cells and T cells

18

What cell types secrete IL-18?

Macrophages

19

What effect does IL-18 have?

IFN-gamma synthesis by NK cells and T cells

20

How many hours does the innate immune response dominate?

0-12 hours

21

How many days does it take for Ab secretion after a primary infection?

5-7

22

How many days does it take for Ab secretion to occur after a secondary infection?

3-4 days

23

How many hours after a primary infection does it take for induced innate/broadly specific response to occur?

4-96 hours

- Phagocytosis, complement activation, cytokine secretion

24

How many hours after a primary infection does does t take for an induced adaptive/highly specific response to occur?

>96 hours

- B cells, helper T cells and CTLs

25

What is the function of granulocytes in an innate immune response

Phagocytosis and release of mediators

26

What are the 3 functions of macrophages in the innate response?

Phagocytosis

Release of mediators

Ag presentation

27

What is the function of the complement in the innate response?

Lysis of pathogen

28

What is the function of lysozyme in the innate response?

Bacterial wall destruction

29

What are the 4 polymorphonuclear innate immune cells?

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils
Mast cells

30

What innate cells are mononuclear?

Monocytes and macrophages

31

What innate cells respond to allergic reactions?

Eosinophils
Basophils
Mast cells

32

What innate cell is a circulating macrophage precursor?

Monocyte

33

LPS on the extracellular side, porin channel in the outer membrane, and lipoprotein in the periplasmic space is characteristic of what type of bacteria?

Gram-negative bacteria

34

Teichoic acid, Lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan all on the extracellular side of the cell are characterized as what type of bacteria?

Gram-positive

35

Lipoarabinomannan on the extracellular side of the cell is characteristic of what type of bacteria?

Mycobacteria

36

Mannose proteins on the extracellular side of the cell is characteristic of what type of bacteria?

Fungi

37

___________________ encoded refers to sequences that are found in gamete producing cells

Germ-line

38

Which TLR's are found in the plasma membrane?

TLR1:TLR2 heterodimer
TLR2:TLR6 heterodimer
TLR4:TLR4 homodimer
TLR5

39

What TLR's are found in endosomes?

TLR3
TLR7
TLR8
TLR9

40

What is the role of PRRs in phagocytosis?

1) Microbe binds to phagocyte receptors
2) Phagocyte membrane zips up around microbe
3) Microbe ingested in phagosome
4) Fusion of phagosome with lysosome
5) Killing of microbes by lysosomal enzymes in phagolysosomes
6) Killing of phagocytosed microbes by ROS and NO

41

How is NO formed in the phsgolysosome?

Arginine is converted to NO by iNOS

42

How is ROS formed in the phagolysosome?

O2 is converted to ROS by phagocyte oxidase

43

Oxygen-dependent intracellular killing is a by-product of the respiratory burst that accompanies phagocytosis and produces several other microbicidal oxygen metabolites. What are the events in the respiratory burst?

1) Oxygen consumption increases
2) Hexose monophosphate shunt (HMPS) activity is stimulated
3) Hydrogen peroxide production increases
4) Superoxide anion is produced

44

________________ is a potent oxidizing agent that kills microbes by denaturing essential enzymes and transpor protein in the cytoplasmic membrane

Hydrogen peroxide

45

Superoxide anon is extremely toxic to bacteria and tissue, but it is very unstable. It is quickly converted to hydrogen peroxide by _____________ ___________. The hydrogen peroxide is broken down by ______________.

Superoxide dismutase; catalase

46

_______________, in the presence of toxic oxygen metabolites, catalyzes toxic peroxidation of a variety of surface molecules on microorganisms

Myeloperoxidase

47

______________, the product of the myeloperoxidase enzyme, is more antimicrobial alone than each of its 3 components

Hypochlorite

48

___________ are small proteins secreted by many cell types and can be either pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory. ________ are small protein chemoattractants important for trafficking of immune cells

Cytokines; chemokines

49

What are the major effects of IL-1beta?

Fever and production of IL-6

50

What are the major systemic effects of TNF-alpha?

Fever
Mobilization of metabolites
Shock

51

What are the local effects of IL-6?

Lymphocyte activation and increased Ab production

52

What is the role of IL-8?

Chemotactic factor that recruits neutrophils, basophils, and T cells to site of infection

53

The complement pathways deposit opsonins, chemotactic factors and anaphylatoxins. What is the role of anaphylatoxins?

Cause degranulation of mast cells/basophils and release vasoactive substances

54

The complement pathways deposit opsonins, chemotactic factors and anaphylatoxins. What is the role of chemotactic factors?

Attract immune cells

55

The complement pathways deposit opsonins, chemotactic factors and anaphylatoxins. What is the role of opsonins?

Deposited on microbes and enhance their uptake by phagocytes bearing complement receptors

56

What complement pathway is activated by Ag-Ab complexes?

Classical pathway

57

What complement pathway is activated by microbial-cell walls?

Alternative pathway

58

What complement pathway is activated by the interaction of microbial carbohydrates with mannose-binding protein in the plasma?

Lectin pathway

59

PRRs are nonclonal, what does this mean?

They are identical receptors on all cells of the same lineage

60

What is the main function of alternative macrophages besides anti-inflammatory effects?

Wound repair

61

A workup on an ill child revealed low levels of complement C3 in her blood. Which one of the following presentations did this child most likely manifest?
A) Chronic eczema
B) Immune hemolytic anemia
C) Incomplete recovery from viral infections
D) Poor response to vaccination
E) Recurrent infections with extracellular bacteria

E) Recurrent infections with extracellular bacteria

62

Which of the following is a receptor on macrophages hat is specific for a structure produced by bacteria but not by mammalian cells?
A) CD36 (scavenger receptor)
B) Fc receptor
C) Complement Receptor
D) Mannose receptor
E) ICAM-1

D) Mannose Receptor

- TLRs and NFmet would be right too if those were answer choices

63

Which one of the following cells is the major source of tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1 and IL-12?
A) B cells
B) Macrophages
C) Mast cells
D) Th1 cells
E) Th2 cells

B) Macrophages

64

Activation of the complement system, directly results in which of the following outcomes?
A) Enhanced phagocytosis
B) Expression of TLRs on phagocyte cell surface
C) Enhancement of immune-mediated neutralization
D) Interaction of Fc receptors with Abs bound to Ags on the pathogen surface
E) Proliferation of T cells

A) enhanced phagocytosis

65

Septic shock may develop when bacterial components are recognized by macrophages. Which 2 proinflammatory cytokines are rapidly elevated during early phases of bacterial septic shock?
A) TNF-alpha and IL-1Beta
B) IL-2 and TNF-beta
C) IL-4 and IL-5
D) TNF-beta and TGF-beta

A) TNF-alpha and IL-1beta

66

Several of the complement components are:
A) Glycolipids
B) Cytokines
C) Enzymes
D) Hormones
E) Abs

C) Enzymes

67

NK cells are activated by several cytokines that are produced by specific cell types including which of the following?
A) IL-12 which is produced by macrophages
B) IL-12 which is produced by virally infected cells
C) IFN-gamma and IFN-beta which are produced by virally infected cells
D) Answers A and C are correct
E) ANswers B and C are correct

A) IL-12 which is produced by macrophages

68

Complement lyses cells by:
A) Enzymatic digestion of the cell membrane
B) Activation of adenylate cyclase
C) Insertion of complement proteins into the cell membrane
D) Inhibition of elongation factor 2
E) Activation of TLR4

C) Insertion of complement proteins into the cell membrane

69

Major function(s) of the lymphatic system is/are?
A) Provide a route for return of ECF
B) Act as a drain off for inflammatory response
C) Render surveillance, recognition and protection against foreign materials via lymphocytes, phagocytes and Abs
D) A and C
E) All of the above

E) all of the above

70

When a macrophage ingests an invading bacterium and takes the Ag to a lymph node, what happens next?
A) The macrophage will present it to the first B-cell it encounters, and the B-cell will in turn change its surface receptors to match the Ag
B) A B-cell will only become activated if it already has a match for the Ag
C) A matching B cell will become activated into a cytotoxic T-cell
D) The cells of the LN will release histamine
E) The LN will increase production of neutrophils

B) A B-cell will only become activated if it already has a match for the Ag

71

What is the most common portal of entry for diseases into the body?

Respiratory system

72

Nonspecific resistance is:
A) The body's ability to ward off diseases
B) The body's defense against any kind of pathogen
C) The body's defense against a particular pathogen
D) The lack of resistance
E) None of the above

B) The body's defense against any kind of pathogen

73

Administration of the DPT vaccine (diphtheria toxoid, pertussis products, and tetanus toxoid) would stimulate which of the following types of immunity?
A) Adoptive
B) Artificial active
C) Artificial passive
D) Natural active
E) Natural passive

B) Artificial active

74

Which of the following characteristics most strongly suggests in a photomicrograph that a macrophage is phagocytically active?
A) Immunocytochemical detection of collagenase
B) Microvilli-covered surface
C) Presence of receptors of IgG and complement
D) Presence of secondary lysosomes throughout cytoplasm
E) Shape of the nucleus

C) Presence of receptors for IgG and complement

75

Which cytokine is produced by CD4+ T cells and has the principal action of B-cell switching to IgE?

IL-4