Where is the hard and soft palate found?
- Hard Palate: Anterior ⅔ of palate
- Hard and Bony
- Separates oral cavity from nasal cavity
- Soft Palate: Posterior ⅓ of palate
- Soft and Muscular
What extends inferiorly from posterior part of the soft palate?
What happens to the soft palate and uvula when swallowing?
Soft palate and uvula will rise up to close of nasopharynx, closing of air tube
Where are the palatine tonsils found?
What do they do?
Location: Between glossopalantine (anterior) and pharyngopalantine (posterior) arches
Function: Detects antigens in food and drink and can stimulate innate immune response if necessary
Explain the innervation of the tongue.
Anterior ⅔ of Tongue
- Taste: Chorda Tympani (from CN VII)
- Sensory: Lingual Nerve (from CN V3)
Posterior ⅓ of Tongue
- Taste: Glosspharyngeal (CN IX)
- Sensory: Glosspharyngeal (CN IX)
Motor Function of Tongue
- Hypoglossal (CN XII)
What tonsils are found in the posterior surface of the tongue?
What are the three salivary glands?
- Parotid: largest gland
- Submandibular: makes the most saliva
- Sublingual: makes more mucous saliva
Parasympathetic axons from what nerve stimulates parotid salivary secretions?
- Originate from CN IX (Glossopharyngeal Nerve)
- Tympanic Nerve –> Lesser Petrosal Nerve
- Synapse at Otic Ganglion
- Auriculotemporal Nerve to Parotid Gland
Parasympathetic axons in what cranial nerve stimulates salivary secretion in the sublingual and submandibular gland?
- Originate from CN VII (Facial Nerve)
- Chorda Typmani
- Synapse at Submandibular Ganglion
- Lignual Nerve synapses at submandibular and sublingual glands
Where do roots of the teeth fin into?
-Sockets within alveolar processes of both maxillae and manidble
What forms a gomphosis joint of the teeth?
- Dental Alveoli
- Periodontal Ligament
Label the Diagram
How would you anesthetize all your teeth?
- Knock out Inferior Alveolar Nerve (Branch of V3)
- Inject near Pterygomandibular Raphe
- Knock out Posterior Alveolar Nerve for posterior teeth (Branch of V2)
- Knock out Infraorbital Nerve for anterior teeth (Branch of V2)
I’m not 100% sure about this so lemme know please
Where do the Buccinator Muscle and Superior Pharyngeal Constrictor meet?
What are the pharyngeal constrictors innervated by?
What about stylopharyngeus muscle?
- Main: CN X (Vagus) innervates most pharyngeal structures
- Also some from CN IX (Glossopharyngeal)
Stylopharyngeus: CN IX only
What is the role of the pharynx?
- Body cavity that connects the nasal and oral cavities with the larynx (anterior) and esophagus (posterior)
- commonly referred to as the throat.
- Helps with process of swallowing
What composes Waldeyer’s Lymphatic Ring?
Where does it drain into
- Composed of palatine, pharyngeal, and lingual tonsils
- Drains to Deep Cervical Nodes
What nerve can be found deep and lateral to the palatine tonsil?
What is the function of tensor veli palatini or levator veli palatini? What innervates them?
What happens if the tensor veli palatini or levator veli palatini are paralyzed?
Tensor Veli Palantini
- Tenses soft palate for swallowing
- Helps depressurize middle ear
- Innervated by CN V3 (Medial Pterygoid Nerve of Mandibular N.)
Levator Veli Palantini
- Elevates soft palate for swallowing
- Also acts on pharyngotympanic tube
- Innvervated by CN X (Laryngeal branch of the Vagus N.)
Paralysis can lead to reflux of oral into nasal cavity or pharyngotympanic tube dysnfunction.
What are the three stages of swallowing?
- Stage 1 - Voluntary: Bolux compressed against palate and pushed into oropharynx from mouth
- Movements from muscles of tongue and soft palate
- Stage 2 - Involuntary and Rapid: Soft palate is elevated, closing of nasopharynx from oropharynx and laryngopharynx.
- Pharynx receives bolus and larynx is elevated.
- Stage 3 - Involuntary: Pharyngeal constrictors forces bolus down esophagus.
What three muscles depress the torus tubarius and open the eustachian tube?
Superior pharyngeal constrictor.
Tensor veli palatini.
Levator veli palatini.