Flashcards in Lecture 10: Ovarian Aging and Menopause, Physiology and Pathophysiology Deck (22)
What does impact of ovarian aging lead to?
Morbidity associated with age-appropriate and premature menopause
Quality of Life
How will most programmed oocytes die in a female?
They will undergo atresia
What are the clinical correlates of loss of follicles?
1. reduced odds of pregnancy
2. fewer follicles grow per cycle as woman ages
3. menstrual cycle irregularity becomes more common
The rate of follicular atresia is not fixed and becomes more rapid approximately 10-15 years prior to menopause
What is menopause?
The point when permanent cessation of menstruation occurs following loss ovarian activity
No period for 12 months straight
-menstrual irregularity, symptoms
What is the time of menopause?
50-52 years (mean/median)
What is perimenopausal/menopausal transition?
Median age = 47.5 yo
Menstrual irregularity, symptoms
What are the factors related to age of onset of menopause?
1. smoking hastens onset of menopause by 1.5 years
2. familial component
3. possible dietary habits (vegetarians earlier than meat eaters)
4. alcohol consumption might be associated with later menopause
5. no definitive correlation with menarche age, oral contraceptive, race, SES, parity
What are the health risk related to menopause?
-total and LDL cholesterol levels are lower in premenopausal women than in men
-levels gradually increase with age and after menopause
-metabolic syndrome increases during perimenopause and postmenopause
3. Hot flash
-heat inside the body that leads to sweat
4. urogenital atrophy
5. musculoskeletal symptoms
6. disordered sleep
How do you treat menopausal symptoms?
1. Hormone replacement therapy (estrogen+progestin or estrogen only)
2. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
What is premature ovarian insufficiency?
1. Cessation of ovarian function at age 40 yo or less
2. incidence 1% per year
3. Biochemical diagnosis
-elevated gonadotropins (LH, FSH) in the menopausal range need to be documented on at least two separate occasions one month apart with low estradiol
4. The risks are as follows:
-diminished quality of life
Why are elevated gonadotropins (LH, FSH) in females diagnostic for premature ovarian insufficiency?
Because High FSH and LH means there is no ESTROGEN being produced
Estrogen should be inhibiting the gonadotropes
What are the etiology/risk factors of premature ovarian insufficiency?
1. Genetic/cytogenetic abnormalities
2. Autoimminue causes
3. metabolic disorders
What is one common chromosomal etiology of premature ovarian failure?
One X chromosome and that’s it
What does Turner’s Syndrome predispose you to ovary wise? Lol
Premature ovarian failure
What are the clinical features of turners syndrome?
1. premature ovarian failure and delayed puberty
-rapid atresia of oocytes
2. Short stature
3. Renal anomalies
4. Cardiovascular abnormalities
5. Associated autoimmune disorders
What is the point of the X chromosome?
Required to be active in the ovary to ensure normal development and maintenance of oocyte number
Needed for follicle maintenance
What can chemotherapy and radiation do to the ovary?
1. Chemotherapy damages primordial follicles
Cyclophosphamide (alkylating agents) are particularly damaging to follicles)
2. Radiation therapy to the pelvis is most damaging
-scatter from treatment to other areas can also affect ovary
What are the benefits and risks of giving hormone replacement to premature ovarian failure patients?
-quality of life
-prevention of CVD
-depends on etiology of ovarian failure
-risk of DVT
Why may premature ovarian failure patients be at risk for DVT?
Due to hormone replacement therapy
What are effective methods for fertility preservation?
1. IVF and embryo cryopreservation
2. Oocyte cryopreservation
What is oophoropexy?
Surgical fixation or suspension of an ovary