Flashcards in Lecture 13 - Immunology Deck (34)
What is immunity?
Active Ability to Resist Disease
Kill or Neutralize Pathogens
What is innate and adaptive immunity?
innate = nospecific
adaptive = specific and needs activation
What is specificity?
Recognize + React With Particular Targets
What is memory?
Retain targets for Future Infections
What is tolerance?
Not Reacting with Self Targets
What are antigens?
Molecules Specific to Pathogenic Cells
Used By Immune System to Identify Pathogens
What are phagocytes?
Cells that engulf foreign particles and ingest and kill bacterial pathogens
What are stem cells?
Pluripotent Cells in Bone Marrow
Develop into Different Blood Cells
What are cytokines?
Proteins that Influence Cell Differentiation
What are the types of blood cells?
Erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs)
-‐ Carry oxygen from lungs to tissues
Leukocytes (white blood cells)
-‐ Active in immune system
What are the two circulatory systems?
-RBCs, WBCs, and Plasma
-Gas Exchange, Blood Clotting
-Fluid Similar to Blood, No RBCs
What are the cells of the immune system called? What are the types?
-Myeloid Cells (Innate Immunity)
-Lymphocytes (Adaptive Immunity)
What are the types of Myeloid cells?
-Phagocytotic, Antigen-‐Presenting Cells
-Phagocytotic, Contain Inclusions (“granules”)
-Release Enzymes and toxins
-example - MAST cells
What are the Types of Lymphocytes?
-Mature in Bone Marrow
-Interact with Antigens via Antibodies
-Mature in Thymus
-Interact with Antigens via T Cells Receptors (TCRs)
What is innate immunity?
-“In-‐Built” Immunity ·∙
-No Previous Exposure Required
What is adaptive immunity?
-previous exposure required
What are the signal and receptor of innate immunity?
Signal = PAMPs
-Pathogen-‐Associated Molecular Patterns
-Surface Molecules on Pathogen Cells
-Examples: LPS, Flagella
Receptor = PRRs
-Pattern Recognition Receptors
-Recognize and Interact with PAMPs
-Present in Phagocytes
What are the signal and receptor of adaptive immunity?
Signal = Antigens
-Surface Molecules on Pathogen Cells
-Examples: Surface Proteins, Endotoxins
Receptor = Antibodies (or TCRs)
-Recognize and Bind to Antigens
-Each Antibody Binds a Single Antigen
What is the primary and secondary response?
Adaptive immune responses
-Initial, Weak, Slow
-Production of antigen reactive cells
-Secondary, Strong, Fast
-Activation of Antigen-‐Reactive Cells
How are antigens processed in adaptive immunity?
Macrophages Engulf and Digest Pathogens
-MHC Proteins Bind and Move Antigen to Cell Surface
(Major Histocompatibility Complex)
– Present in All Cells
– Present Only in APCs
What happens when the antigen is presented to T or B cells with MHC I or II?
T Cell = Cell-‐Mediated Immunity
-Target and Kill Intracellular Pathogens (Infected Host Cells)
B Cell = Antibody-‐Mediated Immunity
-Target and Kill Extracellular Pathogens or Toxins
What kinds of T cells confer cell-,mediated immunity?
T-‐Cytotoxic (TC) Cells
-Bind MHC I
-Recognize + Kill Infected Cells
T-‐Helper (TH) Cells
-Bind MHC II
-Produce Cytokines that Activate Other Cells
What kind of cell confers antibody-mediated immunity?
TH2 Cells Activate B Cells to Form Plasma Cells
Plasma Cells Produce/Release Antibodies
What do antibodies do?
Bind Specifically to a Single Antigen, Resulting in:
-Opsonization – Pathogen Cell Marked for Destruction
-Complement Proteins – Pathogen Cell Lysed
-Neutralization – Pathogen Interactions Blocked
What are the major immunoglobulin IgG Classes?
IgG – Smallest, Most Common
IgM – Largest, First Produced
IgA – Secreted in Body Fluids
IgD – No Known Function
IgE – Involved in Allergic Reactions
How is natural immunity acquired?
-Aquired By Adaptive Immune Response to Natural Infection
Aquired By Transfer of Immune Cells or Antibodies -Example: IgG (placenta), IgA (breast milk)
How is artificial immunity acquired?
-Induces Formation of Antibodies
-Antiserum (Antitoxin) Injection
-Direct Addition of Antibodies
What is the difference between vaccination and antiserum?
-Immune Memory in Effect
-Rapid Secondary Response Passive
-No Immune Memory
-No Secondary Response
How does vaccine effectiveness vary? How do we increase effectiveness?
Attenuated (Live) Cells
-More Effective, Long-‐Lasting Immune Response
-More Side Effects
Inactivated (Dead) Cells
-Less Effective, Short-‐Term Immune Response
-Fewer Side Effects
Booster shots increase immune response