Lecture 13 - Immunology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 13 - Immunology Deck (34)
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1

What is immunity?

Active Ability to Resist Disease
·∙
Identify Pathogens
·∙
Kill or Neutralize Pathogens

2

What is innate and adaptive immunity?

innate = nospecific
adaptive = specific and needs activation

3

What is specificity?

Recognize + React With Particular Targets

4

What is memory?

Retain targets for Future Infections

5

What is tolerance?

Not Reacting with Self Targets

6

What are antigens?

Molecules Specific to Pathogenic Cells
·∙
Used By Immune System to Identify Pathogens

7

What are phagocytes?

Cells that engulf foreign particles and ingest and kill bacterial pathogens

8

What are stem cells?

Pluripotent Cells in Bone Marrow
·∙
Develop into Different Blood Cells

9

What are cytokines?

Proteins that Influence Cell Differentiation

10

What are the types of blood cells?

Erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs)
-­‐ Nonnucleated
-­‐ Carry oxygen from lungs to tissues

Leukocytes (white blood cells)
-­‐ Nucleated
-­‐ Active in immune system

11

What are the two circulatory systems?

Blood System
-RBCs, WBCs, and Plasma
-Gas Exchange, Blood Clotting

Lymph System
-Fluid Similar to Blood, No RBCs
-Immune Function

12

What are the cells of the immune system called? What are the types?

Leukocytes

Types
-Myeloid Cells (Innate Immunity)
-Lymphocytes (Adaptive Immunity)

13

What are the types of Myeloid cells?

Monocytes
-Phagocytotic, Antigen-­‐Presenting Cells
-Example:Macrophages
·∙
Granulocytes
-Phagocytotic, Contain Inclusions (“granules”)
-­Release Enzymes and toxins
-example - MAST cells

14

What are the Types of Lymphocytes?

B Cells
-­Mature in Bone Marrow
-­Interact with Antigens via Antibodies
·∙
T Cells
-­Mature in Thymus
-­Interact with Antigens via T Cells Receptors (TCRs)

15

What is innate immunity?

-“In-­‐Built” Immunity ·∙
-Noninducible ·∙
-Nonspecific
-No Previous Exposure Required

16

What is adaptive immunity?

-Aquired immunity
-inducible
-specific
-previous exposure required

17

What are the signal and receptor of innate immunity?

Signal = PAMPs
-Pathogen-­‐Associated Molecular Patterns
-Surface Molecules on Pathogen Cells
-Examples: LPS, Flagella

Receptor = PRRs
-Pattern Recognition Receptors
-Recognize and Interact with PAMPs
-Present in Phagocytes

18

What are the signal and receptor of adaptive immunity?

Signal = Antigens
-Pathogen-­‐Associated Molecules
-Surface Molecules on Pathogen Cells
-Examples: Surface Proteins, Endotoxins

Receptor = Antibodies (or TCRs)
-Soluble Proteins
-Recognize and Bind to Antigens
-Each Antibody Binds a Single Antigen

19

What is the primary and secondary response?

Adaptive immune responses

Primary Response
-Initial, Weak, Slow
-Production of antigen reactive cells

Secondary Response
-Secondary, Strong, Fast
-Activation of Antigen-­‐Reactive Cells

20

How are antigens processed in adaptive immunity?

Macrophages Engulf and Digest Pathogens
-MHC Proteins Bind and Move Antigen to Cell Surface
(Major Histocompatibility Complex)

MHC I
– Present in All Cells

MHC II
– Present Only in APCs

21

What happens when the antigen is presented to T or B cells with MHC I or II?

T Cell = Cell-­‐Mediated Immunity
-Target and Kill Intracellular Pathogens (Infected Host Cells)

B Cell = Antibody-­‐Mediated Immunity
-Target and Kill Extracellular Pathogens or Toxins

22

What kinds of T cells confer cell-,mediated immunity?

T-­‐Cytotoxic (TC) Cells
-Bind MHC I
-Recognize + Kill Infected Cells

T-­‐Helper (TH) Cells
-­Bind MHC II
-­Produce Cytokines that Activate Other Cells

23

What kind of cell confers antibody-mediated immunity?

TH2 Cells Activate B Cells to Form Plasma Cells

Plasma Cells Produce/Release Antibodies

24

What do antibodies do?

Bind Specifically to a Single Antigen, Resulting in:
-­Opsonization – Pathogen Cell Marked for Destruction
-Complement Proteins – Pathogen Cell Lysed
-Neutralization – Pathogen Interactions Blocked

25

What are the major immunoglobulin IgG Classes?

IgG – Smallest, Most Common

IgM – Largest, First Produced

IgA – Secreted in Body Fluids
·∙
IgD – No Known Function

IgE – Involved in Allergic Reactions

26

How is natural immunity acquired?

Active
-Aquired By Adaptive Immune Response to Natural Infection

Passive
Aquired By Transfer of Immune Cells or Antibodies -Example: IgG (placenta), IgA (breast milk)

27

How is artificial immunity acquired?

Active
-Vaccination (Immunization)
-Induces Formation of Antibodies

Passive
-Antiserum (Antitoxin) Injection
-­Direct Addition of Antibodies

28

What is the difference between vaccination and antiserum?

Active
-Immune Memory in Effect
-Long-­‐Term Protection
-Rapid Secondary Response Passive

Passive
-No Immune Memory
-Short-­‐Term Protection
-No Secondary Response

29

How does vaccine effectiveness vary? How do we increase effectiveness?

Attenuated (Live) Cells
-­More Effective, Long-­‐Lasting Immune Response
-­More Side Effects
·∙
Inactivated (Dead) Cells
-­Less Effective, Short-­‐Term Immune Response
-­Fewer Side Effects

Booster shots increase immune response

30

What is an immune disease a result of? What are the different categories?

Hypersensitivity
-Inappropriate Immune Response (overreaction)
-Results in Host Damage

Categories
-Immediate Hypersensitivity (allergy)
-Delayed Hypersensitivity
-Autoimmune Disease