Lecture 21: Microbial Ecology and Symbiosis Flashcards Preview

BIO 425: Microbiology > Lecture 21: Microbial Ecology and Symbiosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 21: Microbial Ecology and Symbiosis Deck (26)
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1

What is microbial ecology?

study of interactions of microbes with other organisms in its environment

2

What are populations?

Groups of microbes from same species

3

What are communities?

group of microbes from different species

4

How are microbes in nature different than microbes in lab?

-Mixed communities
-Conditions are not ideal
-Environment change over time

5

What are the two components of microbial diversity?

Richness - total number of species

Evenness - number of individuals per species

6

What is phylogenetic diversity?

evolutionary relatedness among species

7

What is rarefaction analysis?

A measure of species richness

8

WHat is the hyperdiversity paradox?

Unlimited diversity
-english channel sample contained 2/3 world's microbes

9

What is the paradox of plankton and how was it resolved?

How limited number of resources can suppport seemingly limitless diversity of microbial species

Resolved by temporal variation, complex microenvironments, and metabolic specialization

10

WHat are microhabitats?

small environments on microbial scale

11

What are guilds and niches?

Guild - group of microbes that are metabolically similar and use same resources

Niches - habitats shared by microbial guild

12

What are the types of niches?

Prime - ideal habitat

Fundamental - full habitat range

13

How are microbial biofilms related to microhabitats?

used to group microbes that grow on surfaces or in water

14

What is the benefits of biofilms?

Defense, fixed location and close quarters

15

How are biofilms important to society?

Medicine (grow on implants) and industry (ship fouling)

16

What are the types of Symbioses and who benefits?

Mutualism = +/+
Commensalism = +/o
Parasitism = +/-

17

What type of microbe rarely has symbionts?

archaea

18

What are the ecological impacts of symbiosis?

Supplemental nutrition and Increase host fitness

19

What are the different categories of symbioses?

Microbe-Microbe
Plant-Microbe
Animal-Microbe

20

What is an example of microbe-microbe symbiosis?

Lichens (fungus+cyanobacteria)
-mutualistic
-Fungus acts as anchor
-Cyanobacteria acts as food source

Consortia
-mutualistic
-reverse CAC
-motility from symbiosis = stratified water columns

21

What are some plant-microbe symbiosis?

Legumes
-mutualistic w/ Nitrogen fixing bacteria

Mycorrhizae
-mutualistic
-fungus gets more water for plant roots

22

What are some animal-microbe symbioses?

mammal gut microbiota
-cellulose digestion
-foregut + hindgut
-out of whack microbiota = obesity

-examples: termites, fungus ants

23

What are hydrothermal vents?

Discovered in 1977
-Tubeworms discovered w/ no anus or mouth
-Contain sulfur oxidizing symbionts=fix carbon

24

How biodiverse are coral reefs?

25% of marine species live there but make up <1% of the area

25

What causes the formation and maintenance of coral reefs?

Calcium Carbonate = foundation

Algal symbionts maintain it

26

What are Cnidarians and what are their significance?

Reef corals + jellyfish

They contain photosynthetic symbionts (dinoflagellates)

SYmbiont loss = coral bleaching