Lecture 16 - Vector and Soilborne Diseases Flashcards Preview

BIO 425: Microbiology > Lecture 16 - Vector and Soilborne Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 16 - Vector and Soilborne Diseases Deck (31)
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1

When a vector transmits a disease from a non-human reservoir to a human, why is it rare for that newly infected human to transmit the disease to another human?

The pathogen reservoir not designed to be humans so usually dead-end host.

2

What are characteristics of soilborne diseases?

Usually fungal and bacterial pathogens
-can't be eliminated because of unlimited reservoir

3

What is the Pathogen, Reservoir, and Transmission of Rabies?

Pathogen
-Rhabdovirus

Reservoir
-Domestic and Wild animals

Transmission
-infected animal bite

4

What is the Epidemiology and Pathology of rabies?

Epidemiology
-Virus in animal saliva

Pathology
-Proliferates in the brain

5

What are the symptoms and Diagnosis of rabies?

-excitation, anxiety, pupil dilation
-lab analaysis for negri bodies
-wild vs domestic animals

6

What is the treatment for rabies?

Passive Immunization
-rabies antiserum

Active Immunization
-Rabies vaccine

Combined almost 100 percent effective, early diagnosis is key

7

How do we prevent rabies?

Humans
-immunization of high risk individuals

Domestic Animals
-immunization

Wild Animals
-injected oral vaccines

8

What is the Pathogen, Reservoir, and Transmission of Hantavirus?

Pathogen
-Hantaviruses

Reservoir
-Rodents

Transmission
-infected animal feces
-feces dries out and goes airborne

9

What is the Epidemiology and Pathology of Hantavirus?

-Inhalation of fecal dust from infected animals
-Proliferates in the human body
-In US, low incidence but high mortality
-Outside of US, high incidence but low mortality

10

What are the symptoms and Diagnosis of Hantavirus?

-fever, muscle pain
-thrombocytopenia=decrease in blood platelets
-leukocytosis=increase in leukocytes

Can use lab tests
-cultures, ELISA, PCR

11

What is the treatment for Hantavirus?

No treatment or vaccines available

12

What are the biosafety level 4 pathogens?

Hantaviruses
Filoviruses like Ebola

VERY DANGEROUS

13

What kind of pathogen is ebola?

Genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae

14

What is the most deadly and most common species of ebola?

Zaire ebolavirus

15

How is ebola transmitted?

Natural reservoir thought to be fruit bats

Bat passes it to non-human primate
Human consumes non-human primate
Human to Human transmission

16

How is ebola transmitted via human-to-human?

Direct contact w/
1. Blood/body fluids of infected
2. Objects contaminated w/ blood/body fluids

Virus enters via broken skin or mucous membranes

17

Who are the high risk groups for contracting ebola?

Healthcare workers

Family/friends of infected

18

What are the symptoms of ebola?

Early symptoms similar to other commons diseases

Days 8-12= vomiting blood, brain damage, bleeding from orifices, organ failure, death

19

What diagnostic tests are available for ebola? How do we determine who to test?

Diagnostic Tests
-PCR, ELISA, Virus isolation

Symptoms + Exposure risk determines who to test

20

What are the treatment options for ebola?

None available
-recovery depends on immune response

Can maintain hydration and oxygen levels and treat secondary infections

21

How do we prevent ebola?

No vaccine available

Monitor and contain outbreaks

22

What is the Pathogen, Reservoir, and Transmission of Lyme Disease?

Pathogen
-Borrelia borgdorferi

Reservoir
-Mammals, mainly rodents

Transmission
-Vector, ticks

23

What is the epidemiology and pathology of lyme disease?

Untreated, disease reaches CNS

No toxins or virulence factors known

24

What are the symptoms and diagnosis for lyme disease?

Symptoms
-acute stage=rash, headache, chills, fatigue
-chronic stage=arthritis, neurological and heart damage

Diagnosis
-symptoms+tick exposure+rash
-ELISA, western blot, PCR

25

What is the treatment and prevention for lyme disease?

Treatment
-Antibiotics
-Vaccine

Prevention
-Reduce exposure to ticks
-Insect repellant, clothing
-removing attahed ticks

26

What is the pathoge, reservoir, vector for plague?

Pathogen
-Yersinia pestis

Reservoir
-rodents

Vector
-fleas

27

What is the epidemiology and pathology for plague?

Lymph node swelling = buboes

Septicemia

28

What is septicemia and bacteremia?

Septicemia=toxins in blood stream

Bacteremia=bacteria in blood stream

29

What are the types of plague?

Slyvatic
-rat to rat using flea vector

Bubonic
-rat flea to human using flea vector

Pneumonic
-direct inhalation

Septicemic
-no buboes

30

What is the treatment for plague?

Bubonic
-antibiotics in early stage

Pneumonic
-rapid disease progression, 90%morality

Septicemic
-no symptoms, death occurs before diagnosis