Flashcards in Lecture 16: High BP Deck (39):
What is Hypertension?
sustained elevation of systemic arterial blood pressure
(1 in 3 adults have it)
What is "Systolic Hypertension?"
Elevated BP with normal Diastolic
aka (isolated systolic hypertension)
What is "Systolic/Diastolic Hypertension?"
Elevated Sys and Dia BP
What is "Primary Hypertension?"
Elevated BP which causes other conditions
What is "Secondary Hypertension?"
a condition caused by a systemic disease process that raises peripheral vascular resistance or cardiac output
When the ventricles _____, to force open the _______ valves, they must generate sufficient _____ to exceed the BP in the major arteries
What is "Hypertrophy?"
an enlarged organ
The heart may be able to compensate for a sustained increase in _______ by hypertrophy. This enables it to _____ more forcefully and maintain a normal ____ _____ despite an abnormal impediment to ______
What are 10 factors associated with Primary Hypertension?
1) family history of it
2) Advancing age
3) gender (males <55 and woman >74)
4) black race
5) High sodium intake
6) glucose intolerance
7) cigarette smoking
9) heavy alcohol consumption
10) low intake of calcium, potassium and magnesium
why does large amount of Sodium cause hypertension?
- reduces the kidney's ability to remove water
why does cigarette smoking cause hypertension?
nicotine is a vasoconstrictor which can elevated sys and dia BP
Hypertension is higher in heavy drinkers than abstinent drinker? T/F
Moderate Drinkers have a lower blood pressure than BOTH heavy drinkers and abstinent drinkers?
In individuals with hypetension, over activity of the ______ nervous system can result from increased production of ________ (______ and ______) or from increased receptor reactivity involving these __________.
(epinephrine and norepinephrine)
_______ is responsible for the _______ of the myocardium associated with hypertension
_______ not only contributes to sodium ______ by the kidney, but also has further deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system
These modulates renal sodium excretion and includes ____ ____ ____ (ANP), _____ ____ _____ (BNP), ____ ____ ____ (CNP) and _______.
atrial natriuretic peptide
brain natriuretic peptide
C-type natriuretic peptide
The function of these hormones can be affected by excessive _____ ______, inadequate intake of ______, ______ and ______, and _____
potassium, calcium, magnesium
What is Endothelial Dysfunction in Primary Hypertension?
decreased vasodilators production (NO) and increased vasoconstrictor production (endothelin)
What is Isolated Systolic Hypertension?
a condition caused by increased in Cardiac Output and/or total Peripheral Vascular resistance which elevates systolic pressure
What is Complicated Hypertension?
Chronic hypertension which damages the walls of systemic blood vessels
What organs does hypertension target?
Kidney, Brain, Heart, Extremities and Eyes
Changes in the _____ ____ can be estimated by viewing the _____ of the retina
Complications specific to the retina include ______ ____ ______, _____, and ______
retinal vascular sclerosis
_______ complications are similar to those of other arterial beds and include ______ ______, ____, _____ ______, ______, and ______
Chronic hypertension also has been linked to cognitive decline in the _____
How does one become diagnosed with Hypertension?
increased BP on two or more different occasions
What are two other examples of high readings not associated with Hypertension
1) "white coat hypertension" (caused by visiting a health care setting
2) recent caffeine intake or smoking
What is Hypotension?
systolic pressure below 90 and diastolic pressure below 60
What is Othrostatic Hypotension?
Decrease in sys and dia pressure upon standing
What is Acute Orthostatic Hypotension?
- Prolonged immobility associated with illness
- drug reactions
- conditions associated with blood volume depletion
- Venous pooling
- altered blood chemistry
- old age
How does salt intake increase risk of hypertension?
Salt intake can increase blood pressure in some people because the salt causes the body to hold onto excess fluids, such as water. This can increase pressure within blood vessels and make the heart work harder
What is a Natriuretic Hormone?
a hormone that modulates renal sodium excretion
includes ANP, BNP and CNP
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide:
helps reduce an expanded ECF by increasing renal sodium excretion
Brain Natriuretic Peptide:
Secreted by cardiomyocytes in heart ventricles
C-Type Natriuretic Peptide:
Expressed in CNS including basal ganglia and hypothalamus
Inflammation cause lead to hypertension by:
a marker known as C-reactive Protein (CRP)
- a buildup of cholesterol in the blood vessels because the body tries to pump more blood to compensate for plaque buildup
People with diabetes and insulin resistance have an increased risk of hypertension because:
It affects the arteries and they are predisposed to having atherosclerosis which can narrow the arteries