Lecture 16: High BP Flashcards Preview

PSIO 485 Exam 04 > Lecture 16: High BP > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 16: High BP Deck (39):
1

What is Hypertension?

sustained elevation of systemic arterial blood pressure
(1 in 3 adults have it)

2

What is "Systolic Hypertension?"

Elevated BP with normal Diastolic
aka (isolated systolic hypertension)

3

What is "Systolic/Diastolic Hypertension?"

Elevated Sys and Dia BP

4

What is "Primary Hypertension?"

Elevated BP which causes other conditions

5

What is "Secondary Hypertension?"

a condition caused by a systemic disease process that raises peripheral vascular resistance or cardiac output

6

When the ventricles _____, to force open the _______ valves, they must generate sufficient _____ to exceed the BP in the major arteries

contract
semilunar
pressure

7

What is "Hypertrophy?"

an enlarged organ

8

The heart may be able to compensate for a sustained increase in _______ by hypertrophy. This enables it to _____ more forcefully and maintain a normal ____ _____ despite an abnormal impediment to ______

afterload
contract
stroke volume
ejection

9

What are 10 factors associated with Primary Hypertension?

1) family history of it
2) Advancing age
3) gender (males <55 and woman >74)
4) black race
5) High sodium intake
6) glucose intolerance
7) cigarette smoking
8) obesity
9) heavy alcohol consumption
10) low intake of calcium, potassium and magnesium

10

why does large amount of Sodium cause hypertension?

- reduces the kidney's ability to remove water

11

why does cigarette smoking cause hypertension?

nicotine is a vasoconstrictor which can elevated sys and dia BP

12

Hypertension is higher in heavy drinkers than abstinent drinker? T/F

True

13

Moderate Drinkers have a lower blood pressure than BOTH heavy drinkers and abstinent drinkers?
T/F

True

14

In individuals with hypetension, over activity of the ______ nervous system can result from increased production of ________ (______ and ______) or from increased receptor reactivity involving these __________.

sympathetic
catecholamines
(epinephrine and norepinephrine)
neurotransmitters

15

RAA System
_______ is responsible for the _______ of the myocardium associated with hypertension

Angiotension II
hypertrophy

16

RAA System
_______ not only contributes to sodium ______ by the kidney, but also has further deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system

Aldosterone
retention

17

Natriuretic Hormone
These modulates renal sodium excretion and includes ____ ____ ____ (ANP), _____ ____ _____ (BNP), ____ ____ ____ (CNP) and _______.

atrial natriuretic peptide
brain natriuretic peptide
C-type natriuretic peptide
urodilanton

18

Natriuretic Hormone
The function of these hormones can be affected by excessive _____ ______, inadequate intake of ______, ______ and ______, and _____

sodium intake
potassium, calcium, magnesium
obesity

19

What is Endothelial Dysfunction in Primary Hypertension?

decreased vasodilators production (NO) and increased vasoconstrictor production (endothelin)

20

What is Isolated Systolic Hypertension?

a condition caused by increased in Cardiac Output and/or total Peripheral Vascular resistance which elevates systolic pressure

21

What is Complicated Hypertension?

Chronic hypertension which damages the walls of systemic blood vessels

22

What organs does hypertension target?

Kidney, Brain, Heart, Extremities and Eyes

23

Changes in the _____ ____ can be estimated by viewing the _____ of the retina

vascular bed
arterioles

24

Complications specific to the retina include ______ ____ ______, _____, and ______

retinal vascular sclerosis
exudation
hemorrhage

25

_______ complications are similar to those of other arterial beds and include ______ ______, ____, _____ ______, ______, and ______

Cerebrovascular
transient ischemia
stroke
cerebral thrombosis
aneurysm
hemorrhage

26

Chronic hypertension also has been linked to cognitive decline in the _____

elderly

27

How does one become diagnosed with Hypertension?

increased BP on two or more different occasions

28

What are two other examples of high readings not associated with Hypertension

1) "white coat hypertension" (caused by visiting a health care setting
2) recent caffeine intake or smoking

29

What is Hypotension?

systolic pressure below 90 and diastolic pressure below 60

30

What is Othrostatic Hypotension?

Decrease in sys and dia pressure upon standing

31

What is Acute Orthostatic Hypotension?

- Prolonged immobility associated with illness
- drug reactions
- starvation
- exhaustion
- conditions associated with blood volume depletion
- Venous pooling
- altered blood chemistry
- old age

32

How does salt intake increase risk of hypertension?

Salt intake can increase blood pressure in some people because the salt causes the body to hold onto excess fluids, such as water. This can increase pressure within blood vessels and make the heart work harder

33

What is a Natriuretic Hormone?

a hormone that modulates renal sodium excretion
includes ANP, BNP and CNP

34

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide:

helps reduce an expanded ECF by increasing renal sodium excretion

35

Brain Natriuretic Peptide:

Secreted by cardiomyocytes in heart ventricles

36

C-Type Natriuretic Peptide:

Expressed in CNS including basal ganglia and hypothalamus

37

Inflammation cause lead to hypertension by:

a marker known as C-reactive Protein (CRP)
- a buildup of cholesterol in the blood vessels because the body tries to pump more blood to compensate for plaque buildup

38

People with diabetes and insulin resistance have an increased risk of hypertension because:

It affects the arteries and they are predisposed to having atherosclerosis which can narrow the arteries

39

Isolated systolic hypertension:

can have a Sys BP of over 140 but Diastolic within normal range