Lecture 19: Integration Flashcards Preview

PSIO 485 Exam 04 > Lecture 19: Integration > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 19: Integration Deck (48):
1

What happens to CO/TPR/MAP when we lift weights?

CO: Increases
TPR: Increases
MAP: Increases

2

How does Higher Altitude affect CVS?

Body needs to produce more RBC due to less than normal oxygen consumption

3

How does Increased Temperature affect CVS?

Heart beats faster and pumps more blood faster to assist with sweating to cool the body

4

How does Humidity affect CVS?

Sweat will not evaporate and the body will not cool down as fast, causing body temperature to keep rising

5

Anticipatory Response
Pre-exercise breathing ______ in breathing rate

increases

6

Anticipatory Response
Releasing of ____ and ______

- Epinephrine
- Norepinephrine

7

Steady-State HR
To find the Steady-State HR, the formula is:

180-Age

8

Cardiac Drift
Tendency for HR to ____ gradually throughout a workout due to ______ and rising ______ within the muscles

rise
dehydration
temperature

9

Sympathetic Control During Exercise
Sympathetic nerves innervating the _____ ____ causes the secretion of _____ and _____ into the blood

adrenal medulla
epinephrine; norepinephrine

10

Sympathetic Control During Exercise
During exercise, circulating levels of ___ and ___ can become very ____ so that the net effect on the vasculature in ______

epinephrine; norepinephrine
high
vasoconstriction

11

Factors that influence CV response: Body Posture
When a persons exercises in a ____ position, _____ _____ pressure is higher than when the person is exercising in the _____ position.

prone
central venous
upright

12

Factors that influence CV response: Physical Conditioning
A conditioned individual is able to achieve a higher ____ ____, whole body _____ ____, and ______ than a person who has a _____ lifestyle

Cardiac Output
Oxygen Consumption
Workload
Sedentary

13

Factors that influence CV response: Increased Age
Maximal oxygen consumption decreases about 40% between 20 and 70 years of age. Why?

- Decrease body (muscle) mass
- Decreased EDV
- Increase circulating norepinephrine and epinephrine

14

Factors that influence CV response: Gender
____ reach and sustain higher _____ and maximal _____ _____ than _____

males
workloads
oxygen consumptions
females

15

Stroke Volume
SV increases proportionally with

exercise intensity

16

Stroke Volume
SV may increase only up to __to__% of maximal capacity after which it ____

40-60%
plateau

17

Cardiac Output
CO increases proportionally with

exercise intensity

18

Cardiac Output
At rest cardiac output is about:

5 L/min

19

Cardiac Output
During intense exercise, it can increase to:

20-40 L/min

20

Blood Flow
The vascular system can redistribute blood to these tissues with the greatest _____ demand and away from areas that have less demand for _____

immediate
oxygen

21

Blood Pressure
During exercise, ____ pressure, the pressure during contraction of the heart, can increase to over ___mm Hg and levels as high as ___mm Hg have been reported in highly trained, healthy athletes

systolic
200
250

22

Blood
As exercise intensity increase the a-vO2 difference ______ and at maximal exertion the difference between _____ and ____ blood oxygen concentration can be ____ times that at ____ level

increases
arterial; venous
three
resting

23

Training Heart Adaptations
The heart's ___ and _____ increases and cardiac muscle undergoes _____

mass; volume
hypertrophy

24

Stroke Volume
SV increases at ___, during submaximal and maximal ____ following training

rest
exercise

25

Stroke Volume
SV at rest averages about __-__ ml/beat in untrained interval. __-__ml/beat in train individuals and __-___ ml/beat in world-class athletes

50-70
70-90
90-110

26

Maintaining SV at high HR during exercise
Increased ____ _____ promoted by the ____ and _____ muscle pumps

venous return
thoracic
skeletal

27

Maintaining SV at high HR during exercise
Venous ______ maintains central venous pressure

constriction

28

Maintaining SV at high HR during exercise
Increased ___ _____ augments atrial _____ of the _____

atrial inotropy
filling
ventricles

29

Maintaining SV at high HR during exercise
Increased ______ ______ decreases ___, which increases _____ ____ and ____ ____

ventricular inotropy
ESV
SV
Ejection Fraction

30

Maintaining SV at high HR during exercise
Enhanced rate of ____ _____ (lusitropy) aids in filling

ventricular relaxation

31

Blood Flow
Skeletal muscle receives a greater blood supply following training. This is due to:

- Increased number of capillaries
- Greater opening of existing capillaries
- More effective blood redistribution
- Increased blood volume

32

Blood Pressure
BP can decreases at:

rest and submaximal exercise

33

Blood Volume
Endurance Training increases

Blood Volume

34

Blood Volume
While plasma volume accounts for the _____ of the increase, a greater production of ___ ____ ____ can also a contributory factor

majority
Red Blood Cells

35

Pregnancy
____ _____ is primarily increased through increase in ____ ____

Cardiac Output
Stroke Volume

36

Pregnancy
Although CO is ____, ___ ____ ___ generally falls owing to a disproportionate decrease in ___ ____ ______

elevated
MAP
Systemic Vascular Resistance

37

Pregnancy:Blood Volume
Increases progressively from _-_ weeks gestation and reaches a maximum at approx. __-__ weeks with little change thereafter

6-8
32-34

38

Pregnancy: Blood Volume
Intake of supplemental ___ and ___ ____ is necessary to restore ___ levels to normal (__ g/dl)

iron; folic acid
hemoglobin
12

39

Pregnancy: Cardiac Output
increases similar degree as the BV. During the first trimester, CO is __-__% higher than in the non-pregnant state

30-40

40

Pregnancy: Cardiac Size/Position/ECG
There are both ____ and _____ changes which can lead to changes in ECG appearances

size
position

41

Pregnancy: Cardiac Size/Position/ECG
The heart is ___ by both chamber ____ and _____

enlarged
dilation
hypertrophy

42

Pregnancy: Cardiac Size/Position/ECG
Dilation across the ____ valve can initiate mild ______ flow causing a normal grade _ or __ systolic murmur

tricuspid
regurgitation
I, II

43

Pregnancy:Cardiac Size/Position/ECG
Upward displacement of the ______ by the enlarging ______ causes the heart to shift to the ___ and _____ so that the apex beat is moved ___ and ____.

diaphragm
uterus
left; anteriorly
outward; upward

44

Pregnancy: Cardiac Size/Position/ECG
There changes lead to common ECG findings of left ___ ____, sagging __ segments and frequently ____ or flattening of the _-wave in lead III

axis deviation
ST
Inversion
T

45

Pregnancy: Blood Pressure
_____ arterial pressure is never _____ during normal gestation

systemic
increased

46

Pregnancy: Blood Pressure
By mid-pregnancy, a slight decrease in ____ pressure can be recognized

Diastolic

47

Pregnancy: Blood Pressure
____ ___ pressure also maintains a constant level

Pulmonary arterial

48

Pregnancy: Blood Pressure
_____ ____ is more dependent upon ____ control than in the nonpregnant state

Vascular Tone
sympathetic