What are the two areas in the stomach where lot of secretion happens?
-oxyntic mucosa= the part of the gastric mucosa in the antrum with a high concentration of glands (75%) -pyloric gland area
What secretion happens in the oxyntic mucosa?
-have chief cells= pepsinogen -parietal cells= HCL, Intrinsic Factor -enterochomaffin-like cells =histamine
What secretion happens in the pyloric gland area?
-different glands here, G cells and D cells in the lower part closer to the pyloric sphincter -G cells=gastrin -D-cells= somatostatin
What is the gastric acid made up of and what is it for?
-HCL= 0.5% and lot of NaCl and KCl -pH 1-2 - key role in digestion of proteins, by activating digestive enzymes, and making ingested proteins unravel so that digestive enzymes break down the long chains of amino acids. -produced by parietal cells
How does the secretion of gastric happen?
-in several steps -H+ and Cl- are secreted separately 1.Chloride and sodium ions are secreted actively from the cytoplasm of the parietal cell into the lumen of the canaliculus. This creates a negative potential of -40 mV to -70 mV across the parietal cell membrane that causes potassium ions and a small number of sodium ions to diffuse from the cytoplasm into the parietal cell canaliculi. 2.The enzyme carbonic anhydrase catalyses the reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid. This acid immediately dissociates into hydrogen and bicarbonate ions. The hydrogen ions leave the cell through H+/K+ ATPase antiporter pumps. 3.At the same time sodium ions are actively reabsorbed. This means that the majority of secreted K+ and Na+ ions return to the cytoplasm. In the canaliculus, secreted hydrogen and chloride ions mix and are secreted into the lumen of the oxyntic gland. stimuli:-Gastrin -Acetylcholine - Histamine
What is pepsin?
-proteolytic enzyme (breaks down protein into peptides) -released in its inactive form by the chief cells=pepsinogen -is activated by HCl -the release of gastrin (hormone) and Actylcholine trigger the release of pepsinogen (as well as HCl)
What triggers the release of HCl?
stimuli:-Gastrin -Acetylcholine - Histamine
What is the gastric mucosal barrier?
-barrier of the stomach that allows it to contain acid -protection of the stomach= mucus coating but wouldn't work long term, then tight junctions between the cells so the HCl can't leak into the surrounding tissues -has three components: 1. A compact epithelial cell lining. Cells in the epithelium of the stomach are bound by tight junctions that repel harsh fluids that may injure the stomach lining. 2. A special mucus covering, derived from mucus secreted by surface epithelial cells and Foveolar cells. This insoluble mucus forms a protective gel-like coating over the entire surface of the gastric mucosa. The mucus protects the gastric mucosa from autodigestion by e.g. pepsin and from erosion by acids and other caustic materials that are ingested. 3.Bicarbonate ions, secreted by the surface epithelial cells. The bicarbonate ions act to neutralize harsh acids.
What are the four phases in gastric acid secretion? names only
1.The basal phase 2.Cephalic phase 3.Gastric phase 4.Intestinal phase
What happens in the basal phase of the gastric secretion?
-A small amount of acid is always being secreted into the stomach. The other three following phases increase the secretion rate in order to digest a meal
What happens in the cephalic phase of the gastric secretion?
- Thirty percent of the total gastric acid secretions to be produced is stimulated by anticipation of eating and the smell or taste of food. This signalling occurs from higher centres in the brain through the Vagus Nerve. It activates parietal cells to release acid and ECL cells to release histamine. The Vagus nerve also releases Gastrin Releasing Peptide onto G cells. Finally, it also inhibits somatostatin release from D cells.
What are the ECL cells?
Enterochromaffin-like cells -found in the gastric glands of the gastric mucosa beneath the epithelium, in particular in the vicinity of parietal cells -secrete Histamine -G cells are stimulated by the vagus nerve to release gastrin which stimulates the ECL cells to secrete histamine -histamine and gastrin stimulate the secretion of HCl
What happens in the gastric phase of the gastric secretion?
-stimulated by food entering the stomach -About fifty percent of the total acid for a meal is secreted in this phase. Acid secretion is stimulated by distension of the stomach and by amino acids present in the food.
What happens in the intestinal phase of the gastric secretion?
-Inhibitory : influenced by chyme entering duodenum -The remaining 10% of acid is secreted when chyme enters the small intestine, and is stimulated by small intestine distension and by amino acids. The duodenal cells release entero-oxyntin which acts on parietal cells without affecting gastrin -chyme is starting to be fed into the small intestine= measn fat and acid and high tonicity of material -strong feedback effect = secretes Secretin and CCK(Cholecystokinin) those are called enterogastrones(intestino stomach)- negative effects on the G cells, prietal and chief cells= dampening down of activity in the stomach and ENS and ANS
What is the enterogastric reflex?
eneterogastric reflex= feeding into the ANS= slowing it down
What stops/decreases the gastric secretion in the stomach?
-decrease in Protein & distension in stomach -Very high [H+] (=very low pH)=Accumulates as chyme levels fall in stomach -Enterogastric reflex & enterogastrones
What is an enterogastrone?
-any hormone secreted by the mucosa of the duodenum in the lower gastrointestinal tract in response to dietary lipids that inhibits the caudal (or "forward, analward") motion of the contents of chyme -secretin -cholecystokinin -gastric inhibitory peptide
What digestion happens in the stomach?
-carbohydrate digestion continues=Salivary amylase continues to hydrolyze polysaccharides until low pH inactivates amylase -Protein digestion begins in antrum=Pepsin hydrolysis=beginning, not in individual amino acids yet
Does nutrient and water absorption occur in the stomach?
-No nutrient absorption occurs -No water or electrolyte absorption occurs=Stomach epithelium impermeable to water & electrolyte transporters not present
In what way is the pancreas a digestive accessory organ?
-secretews pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist the absorption of nutrients and the digestion in the small intestine. -These enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the chyme. -pancreas is exocrine and endocrine gland lot of glands connected ducts but those produce enzymes too
What two types of cells make up the exocrine portion of the Pancreas?
-duct cells -acinar cells
What do the acinar cells of the pancreas secrete?
-Digestive enzymes =Proteolytic enzymes =Pancreatic amylase = Pancreatic lipase
What do the duct cells of the pancreas secrete?
-Aqueous, alkaline solution =High[NaHCO3] =Mechanism similar but opposite to Parietal cells
What is trypsin?
-proteolytic enzyme -secreted in its inactive form trypsinogen by the acinar cells of the pancreas -is secreted into the small intestine= duodenum in its inactive form and then activated by an enzyme secreted by the wall of the duodenum enterokinase -trypsin then activates the other proteolytic enzymes released by the pancreas (chymotrypsin, elastase, and carboxypeptidase)
What is lipase?
-an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown or hydrolysis of fats (lipids) -secreted by the pancreas -converts triglyceride substrates found in ingested oils to monoglycerides and free fatty acids. -secreted in its final form -secreted into the duodenum
In regulation of pancreatic exocrine secretion what happens when the is acid in duodenal lumen?
-acid in the duodenual lumen leads to secretin release from the duodenal mucosa (secretin carried by blood) =stimulates the pancreatic duct cells that secrete the aqueous NaHCO3 solution into the duodenal lumen= so more of it in the duodenum and pH goes up=more alkaline
What is secretin?
- hormone that both controls the environment in the duodenum by regulating secretions of the stomach and pancreas, and regulates water homeostasis throughout the body -helps in regulating the pH within the duodenum by inhibiting gastric acid secretion by the parietal cells of the stomach, and by stimulating bicarbonate production by the centroacinar cells and intercalated ducts of the pancreas -not an enzyme as it's acting locally so it's paracrine
In regulation of pancreatic exocrine secretion what happens when the are fat and protein in duodenal lumen?
-when fat and protein are present in the duodenum that stimulates the release of CCK from duodenal wall (carried by blood) to pancreatic acinar cells that are then stimulated to increase secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes into the duodenal lumen and those then digest the fat and protein =that's how the enzymes are triggered at exactly the right time when the food is arriving
What is canine chronic pancreatitis?
-very common, the reasons for it not entirely clear -manifests with:Diarrhoea, weight loss, poor coat -also have Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency =Trypsin =Lipase =Amylase Can treat it with alterations in diet=can put enzymes into food to help the defficiency of the enzymes =low fat=not a good idea to overload them with energy rich food as it doesn't have much lipase in the system =protein restriction=the same case with protein -dosgs fat,eat a lot and then start losing weight etc= sign of the pancreatitis
What is splanchnic circulation?
-term for the blood circulation in the gut
Where does the liver get its blood from?
1. Arterial blood which provides the liver with O2 supply and carries blood-borne metabolites for hepatic processing is delivered via the HEPATIC ARTERY 2.Venous blood draining the digestive tract is carried by the hepatic portal vein to the liver for processing and storage of newly absorbed nutrients =leaves via the HEPATIC VEIN -hepatic portal vein= connecting the small intestine to the liver -hepatic artery- connecting liver to the small intestine
What does the liver do in digestion?
-pretty central role in digestion in general absorption= the material goes into the capillaries from the small intestine= these go first to the liver -we can have uptake of glucose in the small intestine and then in the blood goes to the liver= there can be stored as glycogen= very useful -other things absorbed as well -liver is like a factory for blood components (albumin) -can produce it as it has the amino acids coming in from the intestine in liver=dangerous poisons and alkaloids can be broken down (alcohol) -there is a limit to how much it can take, then it can damage liver= death of liver cells= problem
What is bile and what does it do?
-hepatocytes produce bile -it is a mixture of water, bile salts, cholesterol, and the pigment bilirubin -When food containing fats reaches the duodenum, the cells of the duodenum release the hormone cholecystokinin (CKK) to stimulate the gallbladder to release bile. Bile travels through the bile ducts and is released into the duodenum where it emulsifies large masses of fat. The emulsification of fats by bile turns the large clumps of fat into smaller pieces that have more surface area and are therefore easier for the body to digest.
What is bilirubin?
-pigment -made from worn out blood cells= gives bile the green colour -end product of hemoglobin
Where is bile stored?
Do all animals have a gallbladder?
-no, horses don't, not clear why
What do duct cells of the liver secrete?
-H2O and bicarbonate(NaHCO3) -other inorganic salts
What regulates bile secretion?
-rise in uptake of bile salts by liver -Fat=duodenum =CCK -stimulates the release of CCK
How does emulsification of fat by bile happens?
What does an Emulsification droplet look like?
-small droplets sucked in surrounded by lecithin and bile salt -much easier to handle by the membrane