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1

What are the three types of muscle?

-skeletal striated(voluntary) -cardiac, striated (involuntary) -smooth, unstriated (involuntary)

2

What is a muscle fibre?

-single muscle cell, multinucleate

3

What is a myofibril?

-- componenent of the muscle cell, there are many myofibrils in one -90% volume of muscle fibre -cylindrical intracellular organelle -the more there is the greater the the contractile strength and tension -contractile element

4

What does a myofibril consist of?

-thick and thin filaments

5

What are thick filaments made of?

-protein myosin

6

What are thin filaments made of?

-protein actin

7

Why does skeletal muscle appear striated?

-alternating light and dark bands of actin and myosin = the myofilaments which slightly overlap

8

What is an A band?

-dark band in muscle -stack of thick filaments and a portion of thin filaments that overlap at both ends of the thick filament

9

What is the H zone?

-lighter area within the middle of the A band -where the thin filaments don’t reach

10

What is the I band?

-thin filaments that don’t project into the A band

11

What is a Z line?

-in the middle of the I band, dense vertical line -flat cytoskeletal disk(protein) connects thin filaments of two adjoining sarcomeres

12

What is a sarcomere?

- -the area between two Z lines -functional unit of skeletal muscle=smallest unit of a muscle fibre that can contract

13

What is a functional unit of an organ?

-the smallest unit that can perform the function of that organ

14

How does a muscle increase in size during growth?

-by adding new sarcomeres

15

What is a M line?

-proteins that hold the thick filaments together vertically in each stack -vertically down in the A band within the center of the H zone

16

What is a cross bridge?

-fine cross bridges between thick and thin filaments in the region where they overlap (within the A band)

17

What is myosin?+structure

-protein, has two subunits each shaped like a golfclub with two heads -the tails intertwined around each other, heads sticking out at one end -tails oriented towards the center of the filament and the heads out -the heads form the cross bridges between the thick and thin filaments

18

How many and which binding sites do the myosin heads have?

-each head has two binding sites = actin binding site =ATPase binding site

19

How is myosin linked to the Z line?

-elastic protein titin

20

What do the thin filament consist of?

3 proteins -actin -tropomyosin -troponin

21

What is actin?

-spherical protein -forms backbone of a thin filament= two actin strands wrapped around each other(like DNA) -two sites for myosin binding (weak= electrostatic, strong= with myosin cross bridge)

22

Why can’t actin bind with the cross bridge when muscle fibre relaxed?

-because of the position of tropomyosin and troponin

23

What is tropomyosin?

-threadlike protein -end to end alongside the groove of the actin molecule -in this position it covers the binding sites needed for muscle contraction

24

What is troponin?

-protein complex: consists of three polypeptide units -one binds to tropomyosin -one binds to actin -one that binds to Ca2+ (calcium)

25

Describe role of calcium in tropomyosin and troponin interaction?

-when Ca2+ not bound to troponin then the troponin stabilises tropomyosin in its blocking position of over actin’s cross bridge binding sites -when Ca2+ bound, troponin changes shape so tropomyosin slides away from actin binding sites and myosin can bind resulting in muscle contraction

26

What happens during contraction?

-the thin filaments in each side of a sarcomere slide towards the A band center -as they slide the thin filaments pull the Z discs closer together= sarcomere shortening -H zone much smaller -I band narrows -the thin nor the thick filaments don’t change length during contraction=accomplished by thin filaments sliding closer together -the A band remains the same

27

How are thin filaments pulled inwards relative to the thick filaments during contraction?

-after Ca2+ bound to troponin the actin sites empty -myosin heads (or cross bridges) „walk“ along the actin filament pulling it inwards

28

Do the myosin heads act together or independently?

-independently -only one head attaching at one given time

29

What happens when actin and myosin make contact at a cross bridge?

-the bridge changes shape, bending 45 degrees inwards =power stroke! -pulls the thin filament inwards

30

What happens when actin and myosin stop making contact at a cross bridge?

-the myosin heads go back to their position and can bind to the next actin

31

How many powerstrokes do we need in muscle contraction?

-many many many money;)

32

What stimulates skeletal muscle to contract?

-release of Acetylcholine (Ach) at junction between motor neuron terminals and muscle fibres= leads to AP conducted over the muscle cell

33

What is a T tubule?

T= transverse -at the end of the A band the surface membrane dips deeply into the larger muscle fiber to form a transvere tubule that runs perpendicularly from the surface of the muscle cell membrane to the central portions of the muscle

34

Why are T tubules important for AP spread?

-because the T tubule membrane is continuous with the surface membrane= so AP spreading on T tubule is a way of getting it to the middle -local AP in the T tubule causes permeability changes in the sarcoplasmic reticulum

35

What is the sarcoplasmic reticulum?

-modified endoplasmic reticulum, important for turning muscle on/off -interconnected tubules surrounding each myofibril like a sleeve -longitudinal down the myofibril but not continuous(separate ones around each A and I band) -at the end of each= lateral sacs = store Ca2+

36

What does spread of AP across T tubules cause in terms of Ca2+?

-triggers release of Ca2+ via the Ca2+-ATPase pump in the lateral sacs in the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol to trigger contraction (the pump later reuptakes Ca2+)

37

What does Ca2+ do after being released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum?

-binds to troponin on thin filaments

38

What does Ca2+ binding to troponin cause?

-causes the tropomyosin to change shape, physically moving it from its blocking position, uncovering the binding sites on actin for myosin cross bridges.

39

What happens to Ca2+ when APs stop?

-then Ca2+ is taken up by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, with no Ca2+ on troponin, tropomyosin moves back to block the myosin cross bridge binding site on actin -contraction stops and the thin filaments passively slide back to their relaxed position

40

What is the ATPase binding site on myosin for?

-an anzymatic binding site for the binding of ATP which it splits into ADP and P releasing energy in the process -the ATP binds before the cross bridge is formed and the ADP and P remain attached = dissociate when power stroke to provide space so more energy can be created -and the generated energy produces high energy form of myosin = ready to act when the actin sites are free!

41

What does acetylcholinesterase do?

-reuptakes Ach in the neuromuscular junction and stops the propagation of AP

42

What does Pervalbumin do?

-binds the Ca2+

43

Does relaxation require energy?

-yes -ATP needed for actin and myosin to separate

44

How is contraction stopped?

- not enough Ca2+ - decrease in ATP

45

What splits the ATP on the myosin ATPase site?

-Magnesium (Mg2+)

46

What causes detachment of the myosin head from the actin site?

-Mg detached and ADP detached

47

What are the components of a tendon?

-collagen fibres -elastin fibres -peritenon -formation and repair of fibres

48

What are the parts of a mucle cell?

-nucleus -sarcolemma: T tubules -sarcoplasm: mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum -myofibrils = the fibres

49

Annotate: