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Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (45):
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Two parts of skeleton

Axial and appendicular

1

Axial skeleton properties

Older, before extremities
Skull, vertebral column, sternum, ribs

2

Properties of appendicular skeleton

Recent
Upper and lower pectoral girdle
Lower limb and pelvic girdle

3

Number and types of vertebrae

Cervical 7
Thoracic 12
Lumbar 5
Sacral 5
Coccygeal 4
Total 33

4

3 types of curvatures

Scoliosis (to the side)
Kyphosis (hunched)
Lordosis (arched)

5

Development of curves

Fetus (1) thoracic
Infant (2) cervical
Adult (4) lumbar and sacral

6

Distinguishing feature of cervical

Foremen in transverse processes

7

What is in the foramen in the transverse processes

Vertebral artery and veins

8

Cervical vertebrae names

C1 atlas
C2 axis
C7 vertebrae prominens
C3-6 non distinctive

9

Which vertebrae attach to ribs in mammals

Thoracic
Cervical do in other animals -- sometimes c7 attached to a cervical rib

10

What does c1 articulate with

Occipital bone

11

What are c1 and 2 connected by and where is it

Dens on c2

12

Largest cervical vertebra

C7

13

Distinguishing of thoracic

Articulate with ribs

14

Distinguishing feature thoracic

Facets to articulate with ribs

15

Where are most disk related injuries

L4 and l5

16

Sacral features

Fused (sometimes l5 fuses with s1 causing it to be disconnected from s2-5)

17

Number of coccyx

Normally 4 but sometimes 3 or 5
Not really fused, vestigial part of tailbone

18

Importance of coccygeal vertebrae

Muscle and ligament attachment for control of anal and pelvic muscles

19

Coccyx pain

Coccydynia

20

Joint

Junction of 2 parts of skeleton (articulation)

21

Types of joints

Fibrocartilaginous
Synovial (diarthrosis)

22

Type of Fibrocartilaginous joints

Fibrous (synarthrosis)
Cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis)

23

Type of synovial joints

Subdivided by shape (ex ball and socket or hinge)

24

Joints of vertebral bodies

Intervertebral disks: Fibrocartilaginous known as symphysis

25

Joints of vertebral arches

Zygaphoyseal (facet) joint, synovial

26

Joints of sub occipital region

Atlantooccipital (synovial)
Atlanto axial (synovial)

27

Joints between ribs and bodies of vertebrae/transverse processes

Costovertebral (synovial)
Costotransverse (synovial)

28

Ligament

Short band of fibrous connective tissue attaching bone to bone
Holds structures together and provides stability

29

Tendon

Fibrous connective tissue attaching muscle to bone

30

Aponeurosis

Broad, flat tendon that attaches muscle to bone or other muscles

31

Joint between bodies of vertebrae

Intervertebral discs (sympheses)
Cartilaginous in axial -- stays cartilage

32

Structure of disks

Annulus fibrosus (outer)
Nucleus pulposus (inner)

33

IVF

Intravertebral foramen -- where spinal nerve is born, roots join together to form radicle

34

cartilage

avascular connective tissue made of extracellular fibers with cells located in small cavities

35

what happens to cartilage in heavily weightbearing areas

greatly increased, cartilage almost inextensible

36

functions of cartilage

support soft tissue, provide smooth surface for bone articulations at joints, enable development and growth of long bones

37

bone

calcified connective tissue

38

what are synovial joints separated by

a cavity

39

what are solid joints held together by

connective tissue (no cavity)

40

synovial joint characteristics

seperated by a cavity
a layer of cartilage covers articulating surfaces of skeletal elements
presents of joint capsule with synovial membrane and outer fibrous membrane
*often have additional structures within area enclosed by synovial membrane (ex: articular discs, fat pads, and tendos)

41

syncrhodroses and sympheses are examples of

cartilaginous joints

42

examples of cartilaginous joints (2)

synchondroses and sympheses

43

intevertebral disks are an example of what kind of joint

symphysis (cartilaginous, solid)

44

definition of sympheses

two bones connected by cartilage, usually in the midline (ex discs)