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Flashcards in Lecture 8 Deck (56):
1

where does connective tissue originate from

embryonic mesoderm

2

what is connective tissue composed of

cells and ECM

3

function of connective tissue

1) structural support
2) medium of exchange
3) defense and protection
4) storage of fat

4

what is the ECM composed of

ground substance, fibers, structural glycoproteins

5

what is ground sybstance

GAGs and proteoglycans (proteins and GAGs together)

6

GAG types

1) hyaluronic acid (NOT sulfated or bound to a protein, bind to proteoglycans covalently)
2) chondroitin sulfate
3) dermatan sulfate
4) keratan sulfate
* all sulfates bind to water

7

fiber types in connective tissue

collagen fibers, reticular fibers, elastic fibers

8

major collagen types

I, II, III, IV

9

type I collagen

tendon, ligaments, bone, fibrous cartilage, dermis of skin

10

type III collagen

reticular. Lymphoid organs, muscle cells, blood vessels, liver, and endocrine glands

11

type IV collagen

basement membrane of epithelium, endothelium, muscle, and nerve axons. DO NOT FORM FIBRILS -- mesh like!

12

in H&E collagen stains

acidophilic

13

what does mallory trichrome stain

type I and III collagen stained blue

14

type I, II, and III collagen properties

mechanical support, give tensile strength to tissue, resistance to stretching when pulled

15

type I collagen fibrils

tropocollagen, hydroxyproline STAIN IN BANDS

16

EM of fibroblasts

have RER and golgi for synthesis of procollagen

17

chain of procollagen to fibrils

procollagen --> ECM--->tropocollagen-->polymerization into fibrils

18

what stains type III collagen only

silver stain

19

which is thicker between type I and III collagen

type I -- reticular fibers thinner. Reticular fibers are 6-12% hexose sugar residue vs 1% in type I

20

basement membrane made of

laminin, entactin, type IV collagen, GAG (heparan sulfate)

21

elastin made of

desmosine and isodesmosine

22

microfibrils made of

fibrilin

23

elastic fiber in H&E stain

fibers thin and branched, forming irregular networks

24

properties of elastic fibers

stretchable as rubber, up to 150%

25

elastic fibers produced by

fibroblasts (esp in CT), smooth muscle cells (esp of arteries), chondroblasts and chondrocytes in elastic cartilage

26

types of connective tissue proper

loose ct and dense ct (dense irregular and dense regular)

27

specialized CT

reticular, elastic, adipose

28

embryonic ct

mesenchyme, mucous

29

loose ct characterizations

more cells than fibers -- most tissue and organs!!

30

lamina propria

mucous membranes -- mostly type III collagen

31

dense irregular ct

more collagen fibers than cells - largely type I and III, some elastic. think dermis!

32

dense regular

parallel bundles of collagen fibers sep. by linear rows of fibroblasts. Type I - tendon, ligament

33

reticular tissue

type III, supportive stroma of tissue and organs (esp lymphoids -- lymph node and spleen)

34

elastic tissue

in walls of arteries and epiglottis (resorcin fuchsin)

35

adipose tissue stain

one large single fat droplet - H&E look empty with white

36

adipose tissue function

in subcutaneous tissue, omentum, mesenteries, breast, bone marrow. insulator, storage of energy as triglycerides and release free fatty acids

37

shape of mesenchymal cells

stellate or spindle, delicate branching of cytoplasmic process surrounded by ground substance -- unspecialized and can differentiate into almost all cell types in connective tissue

38

embryonic connective tissue

umbilical cord - mucous connective tissue WHARTONS JELLY

39

stroma

connective tissue in an organ

40

parenchyma

cells supported by stroma

41

fibroblast

spindle shaped with elongated nucleus, slightly basophilic cytoplasm due to RER , production of ECM

42

mast cells

single nucleus, strongly acidophilic cytoplasm, finely granular

43

mast cell granules contain

heparin and histamine

44

what receptors do mast cells have on their surface

IgE

45

macrophages

part of monocyte macrophage system - monocyte is precursor. In connective tissue, lungs, lymphoid organs, bone marrow

46

where do monocytes develop

bone marrow - then go to blood and then CT where they become macrophages

47

function of macrphages

lysosomes and lysosomal enzymes, phagocytosis, kill tumor cells, secrete cytokines, component of immune system to present to T cells

48

lymphocytes

develop in bone barrow and then circulate. differentiate into plasma cells (from B lymphocytes)

49

b lymphocytes become

plasma cells that make antibodies

50

lifespan of b lymphocytes vs plasma cells

lymphocytes long lived (1-2 yrs), plasma cells 2-3 weeks

51

other name for antibodies

immuglobulins

52

neutrophils staining

multilobed (at least 3), slightly pinkish cytoplasm with barely visible granules

53

neutrophil function

for acute infection, phagocytic cells with lysosomal enzymes

54

defunct neutrophils are

pus cells

55

eosinophil

bilobed, for parasitic infections and allergy reaction

56

basement membrane composed of

laminin, entactin, type IV collagen, GAGs