Lec 35: Reproductive Tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lec 35: Reproductive Tract Deck (61):
1

what forms the genital tubercule

proliferating mesenchyme

2

where does the genital tubercule form

cranial end of cloacal membrane

3

what is the cloacal membrane divided into at 6 weeks

urogenital membrane and anal membrane

4

what is the cloaca divided into at week 6

anterior urogenital sinus and posterior rectum

5

what develops laterally to the urogenital membrane at week 6

the urogenital folds

6

what develops lateral to the urogenital folds

the labiosacral folds

7

what do the urethra and vagina both open into

the vestibule

8

what forms the urethral plate

proliferation of endodermal cells

9

what do the urogenital folds ultimately form

the spongy urethra (spongy urethra itself is internal and from the urethral plate)

10

what forms the penile (median) raphe

fusion of surface ectoderm

11

why is there a dural origin of urethral epithelium

because spongy urethra (urethral plate) meets the ectodermal ingrowth (glandular plate) to form the urethra

12

what is the glandular part of spongy urethra

the part formed from ectodermal ingrowth at the glandular plate

13

what creates the prepuce (foreskin)

12th week circular ingrowth of ectoderm occurs and breaks down

14

what are the muscles of the penis derived from

mesenchymal growth

15

external urethral orifice formed from

canalization at urethral plate

16

what is the scrotum and scrotal raphe formed from

fusion of labioscrotal swellings

17

what are the labia minora derived from

unfused urogenital folds

18

what are labia majora formed from

unfused labioscrotal folds

19

what causes feminization of te indifferent external genitalia

estrogens produced by placenta and fetal ovaries

20

what is homologous to the scrotum

labia majora

21

what does the genital tubercule form (men and women)

penis and clitoris

22

what do they urogenital folds form

ventral penis and labia minor

23

what do the labioscrotal folds form

scrotum and labia majora

24

what does the urogenital sinus form in men

bladder, bulbourethral glands, urethra (part), prostatic uricle, prostate (BBUPP)

25

what does the urogenital sinus form in women

Bladder, Bartholins, urethra and para/urethral glands, vagina

BBUUV

26

errors in sex determination are called

disorders of sexual development

27

hemaphroditism

discrepency between morphology of gonads and appearance of external genitalia

28

majority of DSDs in terms of genotype

46 XX some 46XX/XY or 46 XY

29

what causes 46 XX with ambiguous genitalia

virilization of external genitalia due to exposure of female fetus to excess androgens

30

CAH

congenital adrenal hyperplasia where there is clitoral enlargement and labial fusion - sometimes caused by tumors or enzyme deficiency causing XS androgen by adrenals - can Rx prenatally with steroids until gender is determined

31

46 xy with ambiguous genitalia

variable external and internal -- due to inadequate production of testosterone and MIS by fetal testes. inadequate virilization of male fetus, various enzymatic defects in testosterone synthesis

32

AIS

androgen insensitivity syndrome - 46XY - defect in androgen receptor so get normal appearing females with female external but blind/ending vagina and rudimentary uterus

33

hypospadias

inadequate production of androgens and/or inadequate receptors leads to failure of canalization of ectodermal cord or failure of fusion or urogenital folds causing incomplete formation if spongy urethra

34

agenesis of external genetalia

very rare. failure of genital tubercule to develop - congenital absence of clitoris/penis so urethra opens into perineum near anus

35

anomalies of uterus and vagina (basic)

incomplete fusion of paramesonephric ducts, incomplete development of paramesonephric ducts, or incomplete canalizaion of vaginal plate to frm the vagina

36

uterus didelphys

failure of fusion of inferior parts of paramesonephric ducts

37

bicornuate uterus

duplication involves only superior part of the uterus

38

bicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn

one paramesonephric duct has poor growth and does not fuse with the other - +/- communication with cavity of uterus, +/- hematocolpos

39

septate uterus

abnormal fusion with external uterus appearing normal but internal septum is present

40

unicornuate uterus

one paramesonephric duct fails to develop

41

absence of vagina and uterus

failure of sinovaginal bulbs to develop and form vaginal plate
(uterovaginal primordium normally induces formation of sinovaginal bulbs, absent vagina is usually associated with absent uterus)

42

vaginal atresia

transverse vaginal septum, failure of canalization of vaginal plate

43

development of inguinal canals is primarily a result of

ligament from gonad (gubernaculum) piercing abdominal wall and attaching to internal labioscrotal folds

44

what is the gubernaculum derived from

degerating mesonephros

45

what is the processus vaginalis formed from

evagination of the peritoneum ventral to gubernaculum which carries with it layes of abdominal wall

46

what becomes the deep and superficial inguinal rings

deep: opening in transversalis fascia caused by processus vaginalis
superficial: opening in external oblique aponeurosis caused by processus vaginalis

47

what causes/allows the descent of the testes

1. enlargement of testes and atrophy of mesonephric kidneys.
2. atrophy of paramesonephric ducts enables testes to move to deep inguinal rings. 3. processus vaginalis guides testes through inguinal canal into scrotu

48

where do testes move from

posterior abdominal wall

49

how does pressure play a role in descent of testes

increased intra-abdominal pressure due to enlarging organs pushes them down

50

where are the testes of newborns located

in the scrotum in 97 percent of cases (spontaneous descent wont occur after one year)

51

what becomes the internal spermatic fascia

the transversalis fascia

52

what becomes the cremasteric muscle/fascia

the internal oblique

53

what becomes the external spermatic fascia

the external oblique

54

what happens to the stalk of the processus vaginalis

obliterates and tunica vaginalis isolated as a peritoneal sac

55

cryptorchidism

undescended testes - caused by androgen deficiency and can remain anywhere along path of descend... get increased risk of sterility and testicular cancer

56

ectopic testes

when the gubernaculum goes to an abnormal location

57

congenital inguinal hernia

failure of complete closure between tunica vaginalis and peritoneal cavity - persistent processus causes loop of intestines to herniate through into scrotum or labia majora

58

hydrocele

abdominal end of processus vaginalis has small opening allowing peritoneal fluid to pass through

59

what does the gubernaculum become in women

cranial end is ovarian ligament, caudal end is round ligament

60

when does the indifferent stage of development end (in terms of genitalia)

7 weeks

61

when does external genitalia become distinguishable

after 12 weeks