LECTURE 2 joints Flashcards Preview

anatomy lecture exam 1 > LECTURE 2 joints > Flashcards

Flashcards in LECTURE 2 joints Deck (26):
1

definition of joint

articulation: where parts of skeleton meet (bone, cartilage, connective tissue, teeth)

2

factors in joint stability (3)

muscle tone, ligaments, fit of articular surface

3

definition of joint stability

likelihood of joint staying together

4

joint classifications

structure: how the joint is put together, organized / function: amount of mobility permitted at joint

5

functions of joints (3)

synarthroses (no/little movement), amphiarthroses (slight movement), diarthroses (great movement)

6

structures of joints (2)

solid (cartilagenous, fibrous), synovial

7

cartilagenous solid joint

synchondrosis (connected by hyaline cartilage), symphysis (connected by fibrocartilage)

8

fibrous solid joint

sutures (connected by short strands of dense CT), syndesmoses (connected by ligaments), gomphosis (peg in socket with short ligament)

9

components of synovial joints

articular cartilage, synovial cavity, articular capsule, synovial fluid, reinforcing ligaments, nerves and vessels, meniscus

10

articular cartilage (synovial joint component)

hyaline cartilage, covers ends of both bones articulating

11

synovial cavity (synovial joint component)

space holding synovial fluid, created by articular capsule

12

articular capsule (synovial joint component)

made of two layers: fibrous (external, dense CT for strength), synovial membrane (internal, produces synovial fluid)

13

synovial fluid (synovial joint component)

thick, viscous, lubricates and nourishes cartilages, contained in capsule and articular cartilages

14

reinforcing ligaments (synovial joint component)

extracapsular/intracapsular

15

nerves and vessels (synovial joint component)

highly innervated, highly vascular

16

meniscus (synovial joint component)

found in some synovial joints (not all, but can have more than one), fibrocartilage discs, improves the fit of two bones to increase mobility

17

bursae and tendon sheaths

associated with synovial joints to reduce friction of bones, tendons, muscles; filled with synovial fluid, needed because there's so much movement at synovial joints

18

bursae

flat, fibrous sac with synovial membrane lining

19

tendon sheaths

elongated bursae that wraps around tendons

20

synovial joint shapes (6)

hinge, plane, condyloid, pivot, saddle, ball & socket (3 degrees of movement: uniaxial, biaxial, multiaxial; degree of movement determined by shape of articular surfaces)

21

plane (synovial joint shape)

articular surface in flat plane, non-axial movement, short gliding movement (non-descript), eg: intertarsal, articular processes of vertebrae)

22

hinge (synovial joint shape)

cylindrical end of one bone fits into trough shape of other, uniaxial movement, always allows flexion and extension, eg: elbow, ankle, interphalangeal

23

pivot (synovial joint shape)

round end fits into ring of bone and ligament, uniaxial movement, rotation on long axis, eg: radius/ulna, atlas/dens, atlas/axis

24

condyloid (synovial joint shape)

egg-shape articular surface and oval concavity, biaxial movement, eg: metacarpophalangeal (knuckle)

25

saddle (synovial joint shape)

articular surface both concave and convex (dual curved), side to side/back and forth movement, biaxial movement, eg: carpometacarpal joint of thumb (opposition)

26

ball and socket (synovial joint shape)

spherical head and round socket, multiaxial movement, eg: shoulder, femur, hip