LECTURE 5 cardiovascular system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in LECTURE 5 cardiovascular system Deck (72):
1

functions of cardiovascular system

bulk flow of blood, exchange with tissue

2

components of cardiovascular system

blood, heart, blood vessels

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location of the heart

thoracic cavity, in middle mediastinum, surrounded by pericardium

4

orientation of the heart

oblique position within mediastinum, midline is angled, apex of heart projects to left of midline and anterior to the rest of the heart

5

superior right of heart

3rd costal cartilage, 1" right midsternum

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superior left of heart

2nd costal cartilage, 1" left midsternum

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inferior right of heart

6th costal cartilage, 1" right midsternum

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inferior left of heart

5th intercostal space at midclavicular line

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pericardium

partly covers great vessels, modified serous membrane

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layers of pericardium

fibrous pericardium, parietal serosa, visceral serosa (epicardium)

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pericardial cavity

between layers of serous pericardium, contains serous fluid, lubricates the heart while it beats

12

external features of the heart

interventricular sulcus (midline), coronary sulcus, coronary vessels (run along sulci), auricles of atria, apex, base

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great vessels and major branches of heart

aorta, pulmonary trunk, inferior and superior vena cava

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aorta branches

ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta

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ascending aorta branches

2 coronary arteries

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aortic arch branches

brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery

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brachiocephalic trunk branches

right common carotid artery, right subclavian artery

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descending aorta branches

many small branches to organs

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pulmonary trunk branches

2 pulmonary arteries into lungs

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layers of heart wall

epicardium (superficial): visceral serosa; myocardium (middle layer): cardiac muscle, contracts; endocardium (deepest/lining): simple squamous endothelium on CT, lines the heart, creates the valves

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structure of fibrous skeleton of heart

made of dense CT, 4 rings and 2 trigone

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functions of fibrous skeleton of heart

insertion for cardiac muscle, anchors valve cusps, prevents valves from opening too much, block electrical impulses from atria to venricles, contains arterioventricular node

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heart chambers (4)

right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle

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2 receiving chambers of heart

right atrium, left atrium

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2 pumping chambers of heart

right ventricle, left ventricle

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orientation of chambers of heart

atria superior to ventricles, arrangement is oblique (not linear), left atrium is posterior (base of heart)

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pumps of heart (2)

right heart chambers = pulmonary pump, left heart chambers = systematic pump

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right atrium receives

oxygen poor blood from body via superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus

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features of right atrium

fossa ovalis: visible on interatrial septum (remnant of foramen ovale - prenatal), ventral wall contains pectinate muscles

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right ventricle receives

oxygen poor blood from right atrium through tricuspid (right atrioventricular) valve

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features of right ventricle

chordae tendinae: fibrous cords connecting valve cusps and papillary muscles, papillary muscles (3 groups): cone-shaped muscles with ventricles to which cordae tendinae are anchored, trabeculae carnae: muscle ridges along ventral surface, moderator band: muscular band connecting anterior papillary muscle to interventricular septum

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right ventricle pumps

blood into pulmonary trunk via pulmonary semilunar valve

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left atrium receives

oxygen rich blood from 4 pulmonary veins

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features of left atrium

pectinate muscles: line only the auricle

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left ventricle receives

blood from left atrium through bicuspid (left atrioventriuclar) valve

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features of left ventricle

same structures as right ventricle, no moderator band, 2 groups of papillary muscles

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left ventricle pumps

blood into aorta via aortic semilunar valve

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heartbeat LUB

tricuspid valve and bicuspid valve close together

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tricuspid valve

function to prevent backflow of blood into right atrium, 3 cusps made of endocardium and CT, flow of blood pushes cusps open, when ventricle is relaxed cusps hang in ventricle, ventricular contraction increases pressure and forces cusps closed

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bicuspid valve

function to prevent backflow of blood into left atrium, 2 cusps made of endocardium and CT

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heartbeat DUB

pulmonary semilunar valve and aortic semilunar valve close together

42

pulmonary semilunar valve

function to prevent backflow of blood from pulmonary trunk into right ventricle, made of 3 half moon cusps, when ventricle contracts, blood rushes past the cusps flattening them against artery wall and opening valve, after ventricular contraction blood refills the artery pulling cusps back into their cusp shaped position and closing valve

43

aortic semilunar valve

function to prevent backflow of blood from aorta into left ventricle, made of three half moon cusps, works same as pulmonary semilunar valve

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flow of blood

oxygen poor blood enters RA from SVC, IVC and coronary sinus; travels through tricuspid valve into right ventricle; pumped out through pulmonary semilunar valve into pulmonary trunk and to lungs; after circulating through lungs oxygen rich blood returns to left atrium of heart through 4 pulmonary veins; oxygen rich blood travels through bicuspid valve into left ventricle; pumped out through aortic semilunar valve into aorta to be distributed to rest of body

45

external innervation of heart

cardiac plexus, changes rate of heart's contractions, vagus nerve (parasympathetic innervation), sympathetic trunk (sympathetic innervation)

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description of blood vessels

powered by the heart through ventricular contractions, carry blood to and from heart

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types of blood vessels (3)

arteries (carry blood away from heart), capillaries (allow for gas exchange), veins (carry blood into the heart)

48

anatomy of arteries and veins

lumen, tunica intima (innermost layer), tunic media (middle layer), tunica externa (outermost layer)

49

tunica intima

thin innermost layer of blood vessels, endothelium, minimize friction

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tunica media

middle layer of blood vessels, circular smooth muscle, collagen and elastic fibers

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tunica externa

outermost layer of blood vessels, CT with elastic and collagen fibers, vaso vasorum, protects, strengthens, anchors

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arteries in pulmonary circuit carry

oxygen poor blood away from heart

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arteries in systematic circuit carry

oxygen rich blood away from heart

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veins in pulmonary circuit carry

oxygen rich blood in to heart

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veins in systematic circuit carry

oxygen poor blood in to heart

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vessel walls in arteries vs. veins

thicker in arteries, arterial blood is under much higher pressure, tunica media is thicker in arteries, tunica externa is thicker in veins, veins have larger lumen, veins have valves and can use body movement to propel blood

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description of capillaries

smallest blood vessel, don't have all 3 layers (only one endothelial cell layer surrounded by basal lamina)

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function of capillaries

exchange of oxygen, nutrients, hormones from blood to tissues, removes waste from tissues

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capillary beds

network of capillaries with sphincters

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portal system

special vascular circulation where blood goes through 2 capillary beds before returning to the heart to achieve 2nd function

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vascular anastomoses

vessels that unite and connect, important if there were an obstruction

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fetal circulation differences

fetus must supply blood to placenta, lungs do not need all of body's blood sent to them because they do not function in gas exchange

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umbilical vessels

2 umbilical arteries: carry blood away from fetus to placenta, 1 umbilical vein: carries blood in to fetus from placenta

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foramen ovale

hole in the inter-arterial septum, allows blood to flow from RA to LA, bypasses RV because no gas exchange with lungs, becomes fossa ovalis postnatally

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ductus arteriosus

carries blood from pulmonary trunk to aortic arch, allows heart and brain to receive the most highly oxygenated blood, bypasses lungs, becomes ligamentum arteriosum postnatally

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cardiac conduction

intrinsic system initiating and coordinating contraction of heart muscles

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sinoatrial node

"pacemaker", initiates contraction of atria

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atrioventricular node

impulse quickly pauses before spreading to atrioventricular bundle

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atrioventricular bundle

splits into right and left bundles to conduct signals to apex of heart

70

purkinje fibers

subendocardial plexus, cause ventricular contraction cranially to push blood towards arteries

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blood flow to supply the heart because

heart wall too thick for diffusion of nutrients

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vessels for blood supply of heart

R & L coronary arteries, cardiac veins