LECTURE 3 vertebral column Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in LECTURE 3 vertebral column Deck (38):
1

componants of vertebral column

humans have 26 bones in vertebral column postnatally (33 prenatally), 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx

2

location of vertebral column

extends from skull to pelvis

3

functions of vertebral column (5)

supports body, weight transfer, muscle attachment, articulation, protects spinal cord

4

vertebral canal

created by vertebral foramina, contains and protects spinal cord and associated structures

5

intervertebral foramina

allows spinal nerves and vessels to reach spinal cord, only exists when more than one vertebrae stacked together, can only be seen in lateral view

6

lateral curvature of vertebral column (following dorsal side)

cervical = concave, thoracic = convex, lumbar = concave, sacrum = convex

7

primary curves of vertebral column

thoracic and sacrum (form prenatally)

8

secondary curves of vertebral column

cervical and lumbar (form postnatally)

9

functions of primary curves of vertebral column

distribute weight of body, allows muscles to hold us upright, keeps us balanced as bipeds

10

functions of secondary curves of vertebral column

hold head up and sit up postnatally

11

kyphosis

an exaggerated thoracic curve ("humped disease")

12

lordosis

an accentuated lumbar curve ("bent-backward disease")

13

scoliosis

abnormal lateral curve of more than 10 degrees ("twisted disease")

14

typical vertebrae features

body, vertebral foramen, pedicles, arch (spinous process, transverse processes, superior and inferior articular processes with facets, lamina)

15

function of vertebral body

weight bearing and transfer

16

function of vertebral arch

articulation with other bones, muscle/ligament attachment (through extra surface area)

17

special feature of cervical vertebrae

transverse foramen (protects nerves)

18

cervical vertebrae description

articular facets allow for wide range of motion (superior articular facets face superoposteriorly, inferior articular facets face inferoanteriorly), spinous process is fairly short and sometimes bifid on c2-c6, typically triangular vertebral foramen, body is wide medio-laterally

19

features of c1 (atlas)

unique features: atlas has no body and no spinous process (therefore no arch, pedicles, or lamina), superior articular facets are kidney shaped and face superiorly

20

features of c2 (axis)

unique feature: odontoid process/dens, all other features typical of cervical vertebrae

21

dens

used to be part of body of atlas, moved to form pivot joint, which gives rotation of the head

22

special features of thoracic vertebrae

transverse costal facets and superior and inferior costal facets (demifacets)

23

thoracic vertebrae description

articular facets allow for rotation (superior articular facets face dorsally/posteriorly, inferior articular facets face ventrally/anteriorly), spinous process is long and points inferiorly, vertebral foramen is circular, body is heart-shaped

24

special features of lumbar vertebrae

none

25

description of lumbar vertebrae

articular facets allow for flexion, extension and lateral flexion (superior articular facets face medially, inferior articular facets face laterally); spinous process is short, rectangular, and projects dorsally; vertebral foramen is triangular; body is large and kidney shaped; largest type of vertebrae

26

description of sacrum

5 fused sacral vertebrae; articulates with last intervertebral disc, 5th lumbar vertebra, coccyx, and ilia of os coxae (laterally); functions in weight transfer

27

features of sacrum

body, sacral canal, anterior and posterior sacral foramina, remnants of other typical vertebrae features visible, two lateral and one median sacral crest, horizontal fusion lines

28

description of coccyx

4 fused coccygeal vertebrae, articulates with sternum, muscle and ligament attachment, sexually dimorphic in orientation and mobility

29

features of coccyx

does not have vertebral body, spinous process, or canal or foramina, horizontal fusion lines

30

features of intervertebral discs

annulus fibrosus, nucleus pulposus

31

annulus fibrosus

outer collar of concentric rings (outer rings are ligaments, inner rings are fibrocartilage), supportive/structural

32

nucleus pulposus

center of intervertebral disc, inner disc, cushiony pad, remnants of notocord, shock absorber

33

intervertebral discs absent between

atlas and axis (would impede rotation), sacrum and coccyx (because of weight bearing)

34

description of intervertebral discs

symphesis joint, thicker in cervical and lumbar regions

35

ligaments of vertebral column

anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, ligamentum flavum

36

anterior longitudinal ligaments

neck-sacrum, run vertically on anterior surface of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs; wide, strong, thick; prevents hyperextension

37

posterior longitudinal ligaments

neck-sacrum, run vertically on posterior surface of intervertebral discs; narrow, weak; prevents hyperflexion; located inside vertebral canal

38

ligamentum flavum

attaches lamina of vertebrae (one on right, one on left); very strong, but flexible (contains elastic CT)