Lecture 23: Kinesthesia Flashcards Preview

Neural Control of Movement > Lecture 23: Kinesthesia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 23: Kinesthesia Deck (25):
1

Kinesthesia is the awareness of :

the position of the body segments in space and in relation to each other

2

Kinesthesia allows us to :

perform movements without continuous visual control, to adjust patterns of control variables, and perform tasks requiring multi-limb coordination.

3

_______ are the source of kinesthetic information.

Proprioceptors

4

Problems with Kinesthesia: Under isometric conditions, an increase in the level of muscle activation leads to _____.

an increase in the activity of the gamma system and an increase in the firing level of muscle spindle sensory endings.

This may be interpreted by the central nervous system as a joint motion corresponding to an increase in muscle length.

5

Problems with Kinesthesia: Under non-isometric conditions, an increase in the level of muscle activation leads to _____

muscle shortening, accompanied by an increase in the activity of the gamma system.

As a result, one may see the same average level of firing of muscle spindle sensory endings at different joint positions.

6

Kinesthetic Perception Problems: Under isometric conditions, an increase in the level of muscle activation leads to _____.

an increase in the stiffness of muscle fibers.

This leads to a relative shortening of muscle fibers and a stretching of the tendon.

7

Kinesthetic Perception Problems: Joint torque is the sum of ____.

products of muscle forces and corresponding lever arms

8

Kinesthetic Perception Problems: Joint movement leads to a change in the lever arm. Therefore, joint torque is dependent on ____.

both muscle force and joint angle.

9

If a system within the human body looks imperfectly designed, we have probably ________.

overlooked or misinterpreted something.

10

Accurate kinesthetic perception is likely to emerge through participation of ______________.

signals from various sensors

11

Kinesthesia has more ______ than _____.

positive features than problems

12

_________ sense is still present with artificial joints.

Position

13

An efferent copy represents _____.

a copy of a voluntary motor command

14

Efferent copy participates in ______.

deciphering the mixed information from peripheral receptors, thus reducing the cognitive load.

15

Spindle activity is dependent on ______.

gamma activity, which is dependent on the current descending motor command.

16

According to the equilibrium point hypothesis, motor command to a muscle can be described as a ______.

fixed force-length characteristic (the tonic stretch reflex characteristic)

17

Motor command to muscle allows only certain combinations of muscle force and length to occur in a static state and solves _____.

half the problem of muscle force and length perception.

18

A motor command may be associated with_______.

two characteristics on the force-angle plane.

19

The first characteristic that the motor command may be associated with corresponds to a ________.

chosen value of the central command (the efferent curve)

20

The second characteristic that the motor command may be associated with corresponds to a ______.

certain level of activity of proprioceptors (the afferent curve)

21

The intersection of the characteristics associated the motor command defines _________.

current values of muscle length and force.

22

Kinesthetic perception is based on ____.

signals from proprioceptors.

23

Each proprioceptor provides information that by itself is ______ to extract values of joint angles or torques.

insufficient

24

the combined information is ______.

sufficient

25

A copy of motor command signals (efferent copy) likely plays a key role in ______.

kinesthetic perception.