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What are the NZ stats for chlamydia?

629 per 100,000 population (which was calculated from lab surveillance data).
-83% of cases reported though lab surveillance data in 2014 were aged between 15-29 years.
-There were 83 cases of chlamydia in infants aged less than one year.
the rate dropped in 2013, but it was due to how the data was collected.
Chlamydia rates vary by DHB, some is due to ways of intervention, resource, economic issues etc (highest in Gisbourne).


What are the NZ stats for gonorrhoea?

70 per 100,000 population (which was calculated from lab surveillance data).
-73% of cases reported by labs were aged between 15-29 years and one case of gonorrhoea in an infant was reported.
-Of the 19 DHBs meeting the lab selection criteria, Gisbourne reported the highest gonorrhoea rate (over four and a half times the national rate).


Describe the factors contributing to variations and trends in sexual behaviour?

1. Poverty.
2. Education.
3. Employment.
4. Demographic trends: changing age structure of populations; trend towards later marriage.
5. Increased migration between and within countries.
6. Globalisation of mass media.
7. Advances in contraception and access to family-planning services.
8. Public health HIV and STD prevention strategies.


what are the trends and patterns of sexual behaviour?

1. Trends towards earlier sexual appearance.
2. Less pronounced and less widespread than sometimes supposed.
3. Trend towards later marriage has led to an increase in prevalence of premarital sex.
4. Married people have the most sex.
5. Monogamy is the dominant pattern in most regions.
6. Men report multiple partnerships more commonly than women and do so more in developed countries.
7. Sexual activity in young people tends to be sporadic but is greater in industrialised countries than in developing countries.
8. Tendency for men to over-report and for women to under-report their sexual activity.
9. Patterns of age-mixing and the age structures of populations also explain the reported differences in sexual activity (especially in Africa).
10. Condom use is increasing but rates of use remain low in many developing countries.
11. Married women find negotiation of safer sex and use of condoms for family planning more difficult than single women.
12. Very earl sexual experiences within marriage can be coercive and traumatic (not all sex is consenting).


What are the patterns of living?

1. Socially conditioned.
2. Culturally embedded.
3. Economically constrained.
4. Reflect personality.
5. Have enduring consistency.

NOT isolated acts that are under autonomous control of the individual.


What factors influence the incidence and distribution of STI's throughout the world?

1. Socioeconomic conditions (can go either way).
2. Birth rate (i.e. driven by demographics).
3. Sexual behaviour.
4. Cultural practices.
5. Urbanisation (concurrent with sexual practices leads to rapid spread).
6. Prostitution.
7. Sex distribution (M/F).
8. Self-medication.


What is the sexual trichotomy?

1. Sexual orientation.
2. Sexual identity.
3. Sexual behaviour.


What is sexual orientation?

The gender(s) an individual is attracted to.


What is sexual identity?

How individuals self-identify and how individuals publicly identify.


What is sexual behaviour?

Sexual plans and actions.


What are the key findings of British sexual lifestyle?

Sexual lifestyles have changed significantly in the past 60 years - there is acceptance of same-sex marriage and intolerance to non-exclusivity in marriage has increased in men and women. STIs are distributed heterogenously. There is increasing intervals between first sexual intercourse, cohabitation and childbearing for women. There is wide variability in the distribution of sexual function scores - low sexual function is associated with negative sexual health outcomes. Poor health is associated with decreased sexual activity and satisfaction at all ages. Non-volitional sex is mainly an experience of young age and is associated with range of adverse outcomes.


What are the stats of mean number of opposite sex partners in a lifetime (Natsal study)?

In women they have increased significantly (3.7-7.7). In men it has gone from 8.6-11.7.


What are the stats of the population who has ever had same-sex experience?

Increased from 2-8% in women and increased from 4-5% in men.


Describe the stats of people who had sex with the opposite sex pre-16yo?

Basically more people are having sex younger these days than compared to 60 years ago.


What is the percentage of people reporting a health condition that affected their sex life in the past year?

1 in 6. Almost 1 in 6 people said that they ahd a health condition that affected their sex life in the past year, yet less than 1 in 4 of these men and 1 in 5 of these women said that they had tried to get help or advice from a healthcare professional. Those who had most likely talked to their GP.


What are the stats for sexual function?

51% of women had experienced one or more sexual difficulties, whilst this was the same for 42% of men. 10% of men and 11% of women were distressed or worried about their sex life.


What are the types of risks for STI transmission?

1. Risk markers - demographic factors casually linked to STI acquisition but probably only through differences in sexual behaviour and/or disease prevalence.
2. Risk factors - directly related to probability of acquiring an STI. Enhanced by risk modifiers.

Sexual behaviour is the key determinant for the incidence of viral STDs ("incurable). Both sexual behaviour and health care behaviour are important determinants for the incidence of bacterial STDs ("curable).


Describe STI Transmission Dynamics?

Ro = BcD.
Ro - this is the reproductive rate of infection.
B - this is the efficiency of transmission of the infection.
c - this is the mean rate per partner change.
D - this is the duration of infectiousness.


What happens if Ro is >1?`

The incidence of STi increases.


What happens if Ro <1?

The incidence of STI decreases.


What happens if Ro = 1?

There is a steady state.


What are core groups?

These are small groups of individuals who are highly connected who can create an increase in an STI within a population through the passage of the infection from the core group through bridging members into the wider population. They vary in size for each infection.


Describe sexual networks?

These are the array of sexual contacts. Different infections travel through different networks. Network transmission is specific both in time and in space and explains some apparent demographic differences in STI rates e.g. gonorrhoea patients and chlamydia patients may not be in the same networks.