Lecture 42 Flashcards Preview

P-CHEM > Lecture 42 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 42 Deck (19):

Distinguish between carnitine, creatinine, creatine, and creatine phosphate.

Carnitine: essential for FA transport into mitochondria during lipolysis

Creatinine: waste product spontaneously formed from creatine

Creatine: two fates (creatinine or creatine phosphate)

Creatine phosphate: used to donate a phosphorus to ADP to regenerate ATP to fuel muscle contraction


Generation of creatinine starts out in the ___ from ____. The resulting metabolite is transported to the ____ where ____ and ____ contribute to the final product.

-Amino acids
-S-adenosyl methionine (contributes methyl grp)


What nutritional supplement can be used to increase muscle power?



What are the 3 muscle fiber types and what sort of metabolism do they support?

Type I; slow twitch; oxidative

Type IIB; fast twitch; glycolytic

Type IIA; fast twitch; glycolytic and oxidative


Indicate whether the following will be more prominent in Type I or Type II fiber types:
1. Myoglobin
2. Glycogen
3. Glycogen phosphorylase
4. Hexokinase
5. Triglyceride
6. Protein Turnover
7. Mitochondria
8. Blood Flow
9. Fatigue Resistance
10. Myosin ATPase activity
11. Contraction time

1. Type I
2. Type II
3. Type II
4. Type I
5. Type I
6. Type I
7. Type I has more
8. Type I has increase
9. Type I is more resistant
10. Type II has more
11. Type I is longer


___ development allows faster calcium control.

sarcoplasmic reticulum


True or False:
You are born with a specific muscle fiber type and this cannot be changed?

False: muscle fiber composition can change to some extent with training


Indicate whether the following will have predominantly Type I or Type IIB skeletal muscle fiber composition:
1. Greyhound
2. Mongrel
3. Quarterhorse
4. Thoroughbred
5. Elite distance runner
6. Sprinter

1. Type IIB
2. Type I
3. Type IIB
4. Type IIA
5. Type I
6. Type IIB


With training you can increase ___ of muscle fiber but not ____

-Size and diameter (hypertrophy)
-Number of fibers


True or False:
A slow twitch muscle can be converted to a fast twitch muscle by transplanting a nerve that previously innervated a fast twitch muscle.



Muscles used for powerful activities are enriched in ____ and have ____ conducting motor neurons. These fibers are highly ___ , poorly ____ and ____ is used very rapidly.

-Type II fibers
-creatine phosphate


True or False:
During high intensity exercise fatigue happens as a result of decreased ATP and glycogen.

False: ATP levels are relatively unchanged and glycogen is still plentiful. However build up of lactic acid and phosphate result in inhibition of myosin ATPase as well as PFK activity.


During low intensity exercise ____ fibers predominate. Free fatty acid delivery ____ and glycogen breakdown ____

Type I


How is FFA increased during low intensity exercise?

Adenylate cyclase activates PKA which in turn activates hormone sensitive lipase to break down triglycerides


___ dictates exercise duration.

Glycogen store


How is initial glycogen load increased?

Carbohydrate loading


Why is there a continued use of oxygen by muscle after activity is stopped (oxygen debt)?

-Must re-supply O2 to storage supplies in muscle as well as re-phosphorylate creatine


The heart is highly ____



What substrates can the heart use to generate ATP and keep functioning?

-Amino Acids
-Oxygen (oxidative phosphorylation)