Lecture 43 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 43 Deck (16):
1

What organs are the highest ATP users?

-Liver, Brain, Muscle, Kidneys, Heart

2

What is the most active organ? Which organ uses the most ATP/day?

-Kidney
-Liver

3

How does obesity occur? What does this do to insulin sensitivity?

-Too long in the well-fed state. Stored fat is not completely utilized before re-feeding.
-Prolonged insulin secretion over time leads to reduced insulin sensitivity

4

In what ways that insulin sensitivity can be reduced?

-Reduction in number of insulin receptors
-Reduction of affinity of insulin receptors (don't recognize insulin at same insulin conc.)
-Reduced effectiveness of insulin signal transduction
-Production of hormones opposing insulin action (adipocytes)

5

In dieting ___ signal is increased over time which stimulates ____. During dieting lipolysis is ___ while ____ is decreased.

-Glucagon
-Glucose production
-Increased
-Lipogenesis

6

In a low carbohydrate diet ____ supplies protein resynthesis. ____ are used as a major fuel source which may result in ____.

-Amino acids
-Ketones
-Acidosis

7

Type II diabetes is characterized by ____ which results in _____. This is due to ____.

-excessive insulin
-accumulation of blood glucose and high triglyceride levels
-Reduced insulin sensitivity

8

How can type II diabetes be controlled?

Diet and exercise

9

Type I diabetes is characterized by ___ and elevated _____ (4 things).

-Absence of insulin
-glycogenolysis
-gluconeogenesis
-lipolysis
-proteolysis

10

In type I diabetes metabolites ____ and body can not make _____. Individuals have excessive _____ and are permanently stuck in ______.

-accumulate
-glucose
-ketone production
-starved state (no insulin brake)

11

Indicate increase/decrease/no change:
a. Muscle glucose uptake during Type I diabetes is ___ relative to the healthy state

b. Adipose tissue lipolysis during type I diabetes is ___ relative to healthy state

c. Adipose tissue glucose and fatty acid uptake during type II diabetes is ___ relative to the healthy state

d. Insulin sensitivity during type II diabetes is ___ relative to the healthy state

e. Liver gluconeogenesis during dieting is ____ relative to a well-fed state

a. D
b. I
c. D
d. D
e. I

12

During cancer the tumor has a continued demand for ____ and ____.

-glucose
-amino acids

13

True or False:
Tumors can utilize fatty acids and ketones for energy.

False: only glucose and amino acids

14

What transcription factor activated by tumors is responsible for activating genes to turn on glycolysis?

Hypoxia-inducible factor

15

During anaerobic exercise muscle is utilizing it's own ___ and converting it to ____. During aerobic exercise muscle can use _____ from liver and ____ from adipose tissue.

-glycogen
-lactate
-glucose
-Fatty acids
-Ketone bodies (generated in liver from FA)

16

Indicate increase/decrease/no change:
a. Muscle proteolysis during the healthy state is ___ relative to cancer.

b. Adipose tissue lipolysis during cancer is ___ relative to the healthy state

c. Muscle fatty acid use during anaerobic exercise is ___ relative to aerobic exercise

d. Brain fatty acid use during anaerobic exercise is ___ relative to at rest

a. D
b. I
c. D
d. NC