Flashcards in Lecture 43 Deck (16):
What organs are the highest ATP users?
-Liver, Brain, Muscle, Kidneys, Heart
What is the most active organ? Which organ uses the most ATP/day?
How does obesity occur? What does this do to insulin sensitivity?
-Too long in the well-fed state. Stored fat is not completely utilized before re-feeding.
-Prolonged insulin secretion over time leads to reduced insulin sensitivity
In what ways that insulin sensitivity can be reduced?
-Reduction in number of insulin receptors
-Reduction of affinity of insulin receptors (don't recognize insulin at same insulin conc.)
-Reduced effectiveness of insulin signal transduction
-Production of hormones opposing insulin action (adipocytes)
In dieting ___ signal is increased over time which stimulates ____. During dieting lipolysis is ___ while ____ is decreased.
In a low carbohydrate diet ____ supplies protein resynthesis. ____ are used as a major fuel source which may result in ____.
Type II diabetes is characterized by ____ which results in _____. This is due to ____.
-accumulation of blood glucose and high triglyceride levels
-Reduced insulin sensitivity
How can type II diabetes be controlled?
Diet and exercise
Type I diabetes is characterized by ___ and elevated _____ (4 things).
-Absence of insulin
In type I diabetes metabolites ____ and body can not make _____. Individuals have excessive _____ and are permanently stuck in ______.
-starved state (no insulin brake)
Indicate increase/decrease/no change:
a. Muscle glucose uptake during Type I diabetes is ___ relative to the healthy state
b. Adipose tissue lipolysis during type I diabetes is ___ relative to healthy state
c. Adipose tissue glucose and fatty acid uptake during type II diabetes is ___ relative to the healthy state
d. Insulin sensitivity during type II diabetes is ___ relative to the healthy state
e. Liver gluconeogenesis during dieting is ____ relative to a well-fed state
During cancer the tumor has a continued demand for ____ and ____.
True or False:
Tumors can utilize fatty acids and ketones for energy.
False: only glucose and amino acids
What transcription factor activated by tumors is responsible for activating genes to turn on glycolysis?
During anaerobic exercise muscle is utilizing it's own ___ and converting it to ____. During aerobic exercise muscle can use _____ from liver and ____ from adipose tissue.
-Ketone bodies (generated in liver from FA)