Lecture 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 5 Deck (33):
1

Amino acid

Organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Monomers of polypeptides

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Carbohydrate

A sugar or one of its dimmers for polymers

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Condensation

Change of water from water vapor to liquid

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Condensation reaction

A reaction in which two molecules become covalent let bonded to each other through the loss of small molecules

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Dehydration reaction

A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalent my bond to each other with removal of water molecule

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Denaturation

Protein unravels and loses its natural state becoming biologically inactive

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DNA

Genetic strand

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Deoxyribose

The sugar component of Dna nucleotides

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Disaccharide

A double sugar consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage formed during dehydration synthesis

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Double helix

The form of native Dna

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Fat

A lipid consisting of 3 fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule

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Fatty acid

A long carbon chain carboxylic acid

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Gene

A discrete unite of hereditary Information

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Glucose

Sugar

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Hydrolysis

A chemical process that splits modules by addition of water

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Lipid

Group of compounds including fats oils and steroids

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Macromolecule

a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules

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Monomer

A subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer

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Monosaccharides

The simplest carb

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Nucleic acid

A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers

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Nucleotides

The building block of nucleic acid

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Phospholipids

A lipid made of glycerol joined by two fatty acids and a phosphate group

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Polymer

A long molecule consisting of many smaller or identical monomers

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Polypeptide

A polymer of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds

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Polysaccharide

A polymer of many monosaccharides

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Protein

A functional biological molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled it into a 3D structure

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Purine

One of two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides

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Pyrimidine

One of two types nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, and, along with proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the three major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life.

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Ribose

The sugar component of RNA molecule

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Steroids

A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of 4 rings with various chemical groups attached

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Cell wall

Wall of plant cell that protects organelles

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ATP

Adenosine triphosphate is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer. ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism.