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_____________________ are the minimal units of sound in a language, while _____________________ are the minimal units of meaning in a language.

Phonemes and morphemes

1

_____________________ is the delay between the initial sound of a consonant and the onset of vibration of the vocal cords. It can be the determining factor in why one phoneme sounds different from another.

Voice-onset time

2

_____________________ is another word for the rules of language or its grammar.

Syntax

3

_____________________ involves changes in information and emphasis that convey meaning in speech beyond the meaning of words, such as the way we pause when talking or the inflection we use when asking questions.

Prosody

4

In _____________________ dyslexia, phonetic reading is generally intact, but irregularly spelled words present difficulties. It is an impairment in whole-word reading.

Surface

5

In _____________________ dyslexia, whole-word reading is generally intact, but phonetic reading is difficult. Unfamiliar and non-words present difficulties.

Phonological

6

_____________________ is a branch of psychology that studies verbal behavior and related cognitive abilities.

Psycholinguistics

7

_____________________ _____________________ are characteristics that can be found in all known languages.

Language universals

8

Child-directed speech is also called _____________________.

Motherese

9

_____________________ are made-up for objects or events that children create and use around one year of age. They utilize the phonemes of real speech.

Proto words

10

British psychologist Charles Spearman proposed a _____________________ factor of intelligence: _____________________ factor.

General and G

11

_____________________ _____________________ of various IQ tests shown that certain cognitive abilities fall into more overarching groups, such as verbal ability, short-term memory, and spacial ability.

Factor analysis

12

_____________________ intelligence is the ability to detect relations in specified informational contexts, whereas _____________________ intelligence is the ability to use previously acquired information and skills.

Fluid and crystallized

13

_____________________ contended that people don't have one - or even a few - types of intelligence, but many. He believed that each type of intelligence was evolved and had distinct neurological underpinnings.

Gardeners Theory of Multiple Intellligence

14

_____________________ are averaged data from large groups of people that allow an individual to be compared to their peers.

Norms

15

The formula for ratio IQ is: (_____________________ age/ _____________________ age) x 100.

Mental and chronological

16

_____________________ wanted to create an intelligence test that had multiple performance measures, was not limited to only a verbal test, and tried to avoid cultural and linguistic biases. His test is the most popular IQ test in current usage.

David Wechsler

17

A _____________________ is an independent measure of the variable being assessed. An example of one in intelligence testing would be the academic grades.

Criterion

18

The fact that average IQ scores go up a little with each successive generation is called the _____________________ effect.

Flynn

19

_____________________, being a statistical measure of the degree to which variability in a trait results from genetic variability ACROSS A POPULATION, can tell us about how genes affect intelligence in a group of people, but not in an individual.

Heritability