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Flashcards in Lecture 9 Deck (13)
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_____________________ are substances, agents, and events that can cause birth defects. The embryonic stage is a particularly sensitive for these kinds of issues.



In _____________________ studies, individuals of different ages are compared at the same time, while in _____________________ studies, the same individuals compared at various times of their lives.

Cross-sectional and longitudinal


_____________________ is any relatively stable change in thought, behavior, or physical growth that is do to the aging process and not experience.



A _____________________ period is a specific time in development in which certain experiences must occur for normal development to take place, while a _____________________ period is a stage during which certain experiences have a greater effect on development than they would have if they had occurred another time.

Critical and sensitive


_____________________ was a Swiss researches whose observations and writings about his own children and others have been highly influential on developmental psychology. He posited the idea that children go through developmental stages.

Jean Piget


In Vygotsky's _____________________ _______ _____________________
_____________________, mentoring and guidance allow a child to expand their abilities. Scaffolding is a key element at this time.

Zone of Proximal Development


_____________________ is a social and emotional bond between infant and caregiver that spans time and space.



_____________________ _____________________ are beliefs about differences in the behaviors, abilities, and personality traits of males and females.

Gender stereotypes


In the progression of _____________________ disease, you see increasing confusion with daily tasks, loss of memory of recent events, loss of older memories, marked confusion, helplessness, and finally death.



In the _____________________ effect, offering extrinsic rewards can actually diminish the intrinsic motivation.

Over justification


_____________________ aggression is aggression toward another organism when formerly reinforced responses are no longer reinforced. An example would be a dog who attacks a cage-mate when a normal reward is withheld for a prolonged time.



_____________________ nervosa involves overly limited food intake and obsessive exercise, while _____________________ nervosa involves food binges followed by self-induced vomiting and/or use of laxatives.

Anorexia and Bulimia


_____________________ which are hormones typically associated with sexual functioning in males, increase interest in sexual behavior more than a placebo, but a placebo can increase sexual behavior, too, showing the influence of psychological behaviors on sexual behaviors.