Lecture 8 Mortgage Choices Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 8 Mortgage Choices Deck (25)
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1
Q

What are the two choices for a mortgage?

A

repaying the principal
Setting the interest rate

2
Q

What are the two SMP (Standard Mortgage products)?

A

Annuitized
Linear

3
Q

How does the annuitized mortgage works?

A

Stable (nominal) monthly payments
Initially repayments go mostly towards interest.
Ás principal slowly declines, so does the interest, and more and more of repayment goed to paying down principal.
Expected increase in income make unnuitized mortgage more attractive as it will make it easier to pay more later.
Opportunity costs of money: if you can get returns on your money now that compensate for the higher “interest-deduction” payments, annuitized is more favorable

4
Q

How does the Linear Mortgage work?

A

Stable (nominal) repayments to principal
Decreasing interest leads to decrease in total payment
Linear cheaper due to faster repayment

5
Q

What are the three AMP (Alternative Mortgage product)?

A

Interest-only mortgage
Endowment and savings mortgages
Investment-based mortgage

6
Q

How does the interest-only mortgage work?

A

Interest-only mortgage
* Only pay interest, principal remains unchanged
* At mortgage maturity:
– Pay debt
– New mortgage
– Sell house to repay loan
* Pushes payments to future

7
Q

How does the endowment and savings mortgage work?

A

Endowment and savings mortgages
* Interest-only mortgage + either:
– Life-insurance that pays principal sum at maturity or death
– Savings account that is set up to pay principal sum at maturity
* Interest on savings equal to interest on mortgage debt:
– But interest paid is tax deductible!
* Before tax more expensive, but after tax cheaper than annuitized

8
Q

How does the investment-based mortgage work?

A

Investment-based mortgage
* Interest-only linked to an investment product, hoping that the profits
match or exceed principal at maturity of mortgage.

9
Q

How to calculate real interest?

A

real interest = nominal interest – inflation

10
Q

What is the pro and con of the fixed-rate mortgage?

A
  • Often considered the safe option:
    – Payments are stable in nominal terms
  • However, it can be risky in terms of real value:
    – If inflation is lower than expected, the fixed nominal rate implies a
    much larger real interest rate (and much higher real NPV)
11
Q

What is the adjustable rate mortgage?

A

A mortgage were the Nominal interest rate varies over time and
Follows an index that captures cost of borrowing on the market

12
Q

What is the pro and con of the Adjustable rate mortgage?

A
  • Often seen as risky :
    – The nominal payments can vary substantially
  • problems for a household with liquidity constraints
  • However:
    – Variations in nominal payments to keep real payments stable
    (stable real NPV)
  • less risk regarding the real costs of the mortgage
13
Q

When should you choose for the adjustable rate mortgage?

A

If your income is not volatile
if you have savings
if you are able to borrow
if you have a relatively small loan to income ratio

14
Q

Financial Literacy

A

Definition :
peoples’ ability to process economic
information and make informed decisions
about financial planning, wealth
accumulation, debt, and pensions

15
Q

What is the overall lesson that can be taken from Lusardi and Mitchell (2014) about financial literacy?

A

Financial literacy has a causal effect on behavior

16
Q

What has Financial literacy according to the research of Gathergood and Weber (2017) in Wales and England?

A

Financial literacy has:
* Large positive effect on home ownership
of the young (18-44)
* No effect home ownership for older households
* Lowers the likelihood of holding an AMP

17
Q

Present Bias

A

Present bias:
Bias towards immediate (rather than delayed) consumption
Associated with a lack of self-control

18
Q

What did the survey of homeowner discover about the present bias with money amounts now or later?
Atlas, Johnson, and Payne, 2017

A

Present biased owners:
* borrow larger amounts
* are more likely to take a second mortgage
* are more likely to have adjustable-rate mortgage
(different from UK, US ARMs frequently have teaser rates)

19
Q

Boeterente or Pre-payment penalty

A

Fixed rate mortgages can only be prepaid at a penalty that compensates the lender

20
Q

recourse loans

A

Lender can go after assets and wages if collateral does not cover debt

21
Q

non-recourse loans

A
  • Lender can only seize collateral
  • if Loan > Collateral the loss is for the lender
22
Q

Why Do not immediately default if loan>value?

A
  • House prices may bounce back
  • Costs to defaulting
    – Transaction costs
    – Legal costs
    – Reduced access to credit
23
Q

What are the main lessons of people not defaulting strategically ?

A

Economic drivers have strongest effect
Morals and social norms matter!!!

24
Q

What are two reasons for not re financing?

A

Inattention
Monitor financial circumstances intermittently instead of continuously
Empirical pattern lowers the probability of refinancing irrespective of incentives to do so (incentives are not known)

Inertia
Additional psychological (or time) costs of taking action
Empirical pattern do not refinance if incentives are not high enough, but immediately do so when they reach a certain threshold (outweighing the psychological costs)

25
Q

Why don’t people refinance when they gouvernment reminds them?

A

Because they have a trust issue. Why would a gouvernment remind me of something that costs them money?