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Flashcards in Lecture Exam 1 Deck (112):
1

Define Anatomy

The study of the form and structure of the body

2

Define Physiology

The study of the function of the body

3

Define Metabolism

The sum of all anabolic and catabolic reactions that take place in the body

4

Anabolic reaction

The process by which smaller, simpler molecules are combined into larger more complex substances

Utilizes energy

5

Catabolic Reaction

The process by which larger more complex substances are broken down into smaller simpler molecules

releases energy

6

Properties common to all Organisms

Order
Reproduction
Growth and Development
Energy processing
Response to environment
Regulation
Evolutionary Adaptation

7

Property: Order

Living cells are the basis for making up a living organisms complex structure

8

Property: Reproduction

Organisms must reproduce offspring for the species to live

9

Property: Growth and Development

Inherited DNA controls organisms growth pattern

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Property:Energy Processing

Organisms use food to power activities and chemical reactions

11

Property: Response to Environment

Uses Stimuli

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Property: Regulation

Organisms regulate internal conditions (homeostasis)

13

Property: Evolutionary Adaptation

Adaptions over a long period of time that help an organism survive in its environment

14

Anatomical Position

Upright stance
Feet flat on floor
Upper limbs at side of body
Head level
Eyes forward
Palms face out

15

Levels of Structural Organization

Chemical level
Cellular level
Tissue level
Organ level
Organ System level
Organismal level

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Chemical Level

Atoms
molecules
macromolecules

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Cellular level

cells- the smallest living structure

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Tissue level

groups of similar cells performing common functions

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Organ level

2 or more tissue types performing specific functions

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Organ System level

2 or more related organs working together

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Axial Region

Head, Thorax, Pelvis, Abdomen (Anything that isnt an appendage

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Appendicular Region

The appendages

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Frontal plane

divides body into front and back

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Transverse plane

divides body into cranial and caudal

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Midsagittal plane

divides body symmetrically into left and right halves

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sagittal plane

divides body into left and right halves

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oblique plane

divides body at an angle

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9 divisions of the abdominal region

R Hypochondriac
L Hypochondriac
Epigastric
R Lumbar
L Lumbar
Umbilical
R Iliac
L Iliac
Hypogastric

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R Hypochondriac Organs

Liver
Kidney
Gall bladder
Small intestine

30

L Hypochondriac Organs

Spleen
Colon
Kidney
Pancreas

31

Epigastric Organs

Stomach
Liver
Pancreas
Spleen

32

R Lumbar Organs

Gallbladder
Liver
R Colon

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L Lumbar Organs

L Kidney
Descending colon

34

Umbilical Organs

Umbilicus
Ileum
Duodenum

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R Iliac Organs

Appendix

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L Iliac Organs

Sigmoid Colon

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Hypogastric Organs

Urinary bladder
Female Reporductive organs

38

4 Abdominal Quadrents

Upper R
Upper L
Lower R
Lower L

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Upper R organs

Liver
Gallbladder

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Upper L Organs

Stomach
Spleen
Pancreas

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Lower R Organs

Appendix
R Ovary
Upper colon

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Lower L Organs

L Ovary
Sigmoid colon
bottom colon

43

Define Homeostasis

Steady state of body systems that all living organisms maintain

44

What are feedback loops

Where the output of a circut is returned to the input

45

Negative Feedback

Reverses a deviation from the set point. Maintains parameters within normal limits

46

3 parts of Negative Feedback

Sensor
Control Center
Effector

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Sensor

monitors a physiological value and reports to the control center

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Control center

compares value to the normal range

49

Effector

Causes a change to reverse the situation and return to normal range

50

Positive feedback

Intensifies a change in the bodies physiological condition, rather than reversing it

51

Visceral Serous membrane

Lines the organs

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Perietal Serous Membrane

Lines the walls of the body

53

The Body Cavities

Cranial
Vertebral/Spinal
Thoracic
Abdominal
Pelvic
Mediastinum
Pleural L & R
Pericardial

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Cranial Cavity Organs

Brain

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Vetebral/Spinal Organs

Spinal cord

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Thoracic Organs

Lungs, Heart, Esophagus, Trachea, Thymus

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Abdominal Organs

Stomach, Liver, Spleen, Pancreas, Gallbladder, Intestines, Kidneys

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Pelvic Organs

Urinary bladder, Reproductive organs

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Mediastinum Organs

Heart, Esophagus, Trachea, Thymus

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Pleural Organs

Each side contains a lung

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Pericardial Organs

Heart

62

Potential Energy

Energy of Position

63

Kinetic Energy

Energy of Motion

64

Forms of Kinetic Energy

Radiant
Thermal
Sound
Electrical
Mechanical

65

The role of enzymes in the body

A catalyst composed of protein or ribonucleic acid.
Work by lowering the amount of energy needed in a chemical reaction

66

Major Organelles of the body

Plasma Membrane
Nucleus
Nucleolus
Ribosomes
Rough ER
Smooth ER
Golgi Apparatus
Vesicles
Lysosome
Mitochondria
Centrioles
Centrosome
Cytoskeleton

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Plasma Membrane

Regulates entrance/exit of molecules

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Nucleus

Storage of genetic info

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Nucleolus

Produces ribosomes

70

Ribosomes

Protein sythesis

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Rough ER

Protein sythesis

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Smooth ER

Synthesis of lipid molecules

73

Golgi Apparatus

Processes, Packages, and Distributes proteins and lipids

74

Vesicles

Stores and Transports substances

75

Lysosome

Digests macromolecules and cell parts

76

Mitochondria

Cellular respiration, produces energy (ATP)

77

Centrioles

Organizes microtubules in cilia and flagella

78

Centrosome

Organizes microtubules in a cell

79

Cytoskeleton

Maintains cell shape and assists movement of cell parts

80

Cell Membrane components

Phospholipids
Cholesterol
Glycolipids
Structural Proteins
Receptor Proteins
Transport Proteins
Glycoproteins

81

Phospholipid function

Form a lipid bilayer, hydrophilic heads, hydrophobic tails. Allows certain molecules to diffuse across membrane

82

Cholesterol Function

Helps keep cell membranes from becoming still

83

Glycolipids Function

Helps cells recognize other cells of the body

84

Structural Proteins Function

Help give support and shape

85

Receptor Proteins Function

Helps cells communicate through neurotransmitters and hormones

86

Transport Proteins Function

Transport molecules through membranes

87

Glycoproteins function

Helps cell communication and molecule transport

88

Osmosis

The diffusion of water through semipermeable membranes.
Occurs when there is an abundance of solutes outside vs inside

89

Hypotonic

Solution with lower concentration of solutes, water molecules tend to diffuse out of. Causes a cell to swell (eventually burst)

90

Hypertonic

Solution that has a higher concentration of solutes, water tends to diffuse into. Causes cell to shrivel

91

Isotonic

Same relative solute concentration. No water movement

92

Passive Membrane Transport

The movement of substances across the membrane with out the expenditure of energy
EX: Sugar diffusing in a cup of coffee

93

Active Membrane Transport

The movement of substances across the membrane using energy (Usually with help of proteins & against gradient)
EX:Sodium potassium pump

94

Ion Pumps

Transmittable protein that moves ions across a plasma membrane against their concentration gradient (through active transport)

95

Exocytosis

The process of a cell exporting material using vesicular transport

96

Endocytosis

The process of a cell ingesting material by enveloping it in a portion of its cell membrane

97

2 general cell cycle phases

Interphase
Mitosis

98

Phases of Interphase

G1
S
G2
G0

99

What happens in G1

Cellular contents are divided (Not the chromosomes yet)

100

What happens in S phase

The cell replicates DNA

101

What happens in G2

Double checks duplicated DNA for errors and makes repairs if needed

102

What happens in G0

Resting phase until Mitosis and Cytokineses

103

Phases of Mitosis

Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Cytokinesis

104

What happens in Prophase

Chromosomes condense
Spindles form
Nuclear envelope is not present

105

What happens in Metaphase

Chromosomes line up on metaphase plate
Chromatids attach to spindle fibers

106

What happens in Anaphase

Chromatids seperated and are moving towards the poles attached to spindle fibers

107

What happens in Telophase

Chromatids are at opposite poles
The spindle fibers break down
The nuclear envelope is reforming

108

Function of DNA in the cell

Genetic Makeup
Long term storage of information

109

Process by which glucose is broken down

Glycolysis

110

What is Glycolysis

An Anaerobic process that breaks down glucose. The 1st step happens in the cytoplasm, the rest takes place in the mitochondria.
Breakdown of 1 glucose produces 2 ATP

111

What is the Citric Acid Cycle

Series of chemical reactions used by aerobic organisms to release stored energy.
Happens in the mitochondria
Produces 1 ATP

112

What is the Electron Transport Chain

Series of proteins and organic molecules found in the inner membrane of the mitochondria
Aerobic
Produces 30-32 ATP